Դ˹ѧ - Сҧ - [email protected]

͹ͧ '' ͹حҵѴͻѵԢͧͷ鹤ҨҡԹҶ·ʹ ŷҨҡ 䫵
http://kanchanapisek.or.th/kp/BOOK4/chapter8/
http://www.rta.mi.th/chukiat/story/educate.html
http://www.rta.mi.th/chukiat/story/khongjue.html
http://www.ubctv.com/thai/history_inside_th.aspx

СҨչҨеҧҡ¹㹩Ѻ Ҩ͡§ҧѹ 礹ѧѧԴ ͧ´ ǹҷҧѹ Ҩмҧ˹ѧѴŧ ҧ ͧҢͧ֡Ҥ çѹ ҡͧ ԹԨԨóͧҨ͢ ÷еŧŧ ͧ֡ҡ

'' ժ¡ 觪 繤ªѡɳТͧѺ 繤ؤ عǢͧ (ѨغѹҤͧūҹ)

ͧҵ ѹ ԴôҢͧ١ҡѡԷҹҹ ֧颧 ҹҹ˭ § Ҩչ¡ աТͧٻҧҹҹ ԴôҨ֧Ҫ (¡ 觪)

Դ㹻 ͹ .. (.. ) Դ繢Ҫê鹼 ͤا§ ʡ§֡ ôҪͨԹ ժẺѭҢ觪 þɢͧ 繪٧ ȫ 觻ѨغѹͨѧѴ˹ҹ ѧǡ;¾ 㹻 (Ѩغѹͫҹ) ѧͧ͢Ͷ֧ з袧 Ǻ ѧ ͺ ͧս ͧǧͧ ǧͧ֡ ͧ ҧ ͧҡҡèժԵ͹Ҥ ͵ͧ繢عҧ Ը к͡¹˹ѧҹ͡¹ ˹ҧͧդͧ Ϳѧ Ӣͧôҧ ʹ㨡֡ҵѧ բʧ еͧ Шҧ ҹ¹˹ѧҧԧѧТѹѹ ҹ˹ѧͨѡ͹ ѹ ôҵͧ͹ѡ͹ ҹ֧شѡ͹ 觡繡þѡ͹§Ǥ ҹѡ оٴ ¹˹ѧ͵ͧ¹ ÷÷ ͧشҧѹ


硨˹ դҧҡ ѧ֧ ժ§ͧ ˹ պصê˹觤 ͧͧ觻 - ʴ Թ ١¢֧ͧͨժ ()

Ңͨժ§ 繼Դҧ ѡоٴ ͧѧҡ ѧ ͹٧ ͹ҹ ҧͺ·ǡѹ

繼դҭҴ ҹԷзȪҵ 繻 Ңعҧʹ˹ ͧ ٴ֧ͧҧä ѧ ҹ֧ Ҫê鹼 ҧ - з㹻 ͹ .. ֧ͨѺͧèҡͧ šԨ ͧǧ ѧͧ ç繼ŧҹ º· ͺҹӤѭ 颧 ҡ 觼 ԭͧ ҧǴ

ȩ ҳࢵԴѺ繻˭˹ ͧ դѧ ͤԭͧ ֧Դԭͧ Ҿʹ èҤͧ ѡҵͧ ͨзȩջͧ

͹ͧЪʹ ҺԹ蹾ٴ š¹ Ѻҧȵͧѧ èҨ֧بشʧ ѧ 繤ùӡͧ Դͧ仴 ͧ繪ͺѺ

ѹѴҶ֧ ҧͧ 蹴Թѧèҡѹ ͧͧ§ҹ Тʴ ͧ ͹حҵѧ ôҹѡʴء ظ ա駡ûҡǡ͹ ʶҹó ⡹§ѹѧ "ͧͧ ȡѧʹҡѹͧӤѭ ֧͹حҵ餹ҹ ǡ͡ǹ" ͧظմǢͫ׹ЪԴ ҵͧ ѡʴҹ͡ ͧշҺҡͧâͧ ἹóѺ ͧ ʺ͹ ֧СȨʹ

ҧ袧繢عҧ ȹդҡ سҾͧԵͧЪҪ 觴ѹդ׹ ͧлЪҪǹþѺ͢

ҹç¹ Ѻç¹͡áͧȨչ ¹ ˹ѧ ੾عҧҹ ҹ˹ѧ͡ ѡ¹ͧ ö ءҧ 㹵͹ ǡعҧҧٶ١ ҧԴҤع ö ͹ѡ¹ Ҩ֧繷Шѡҹѡ¹袧͹ ֧觺صҹ ¹ç¹ͧ

ҹ͹ء ҷ͹Ӥѭ Ըաд ԨͧѰ ѡس/ ¸ ó ੾ҧ觤 ˵繼ŢͧäǺͧ ç¹ͧ ʺ稴ҹ͹Ѳҧ˹ 繻ѵʵ֡ Ȩ ͧȨչ

繹ѡ֡Ҽ˭ ҹѡҪվͧҹҧ з෪Եǹ˭ ֡ Ժշ֡ͧ ҹػʺóҹ֡ Ѵѧ㹡÷Ӥ㨨ش-ش¢ͧѡ¹Ф繾 觨з͹ѡ¹ ͹ѹ ˹١ͨ "ͧ ͧ˹ պ价 ͧ 㹷ѹ" ͵ͺ "任֡Ҽ˭褹蹡͹ Ǩ֧价ͧѧ" չѡ¹ ա˹觪 ҹ ͧ ͧ˹ պ价 ͧ㹷ѹ" ӵͺҡͤ "͹ ͧպ价ͧ¾ѹ"

˵㴤Ӷǡѹ ֧ͨͺ͹ѹ ͧ˵ؼŷ 繤ӧҹ ẺءҡԹ ֧͡任֡Ҽ ͤԴͺͺ͹ŧͷ 㹢зҹ 繤 ѡС ¡ŧͷ ֧ͨͧеҹ դҭ ŧͷӧҹ 鹰ҹͧԸա¹ ѡ¡Ҥ¹ 繻 ͧǹ н֡ءѹ Ǫҭ ֧ö¹Ţͧͧ

㹴ҹ֡ҡѺԴ١ѹѹ ;Ԩó ÷§ҹ˹ѧͿѧ͹ ԹԨҧԧѧ öͤǺ 㹢зҡԴ л ҹ˹ѧ ռ¹֧ͧ¹

ͻԺѵԵ͹ѡ¹¤Ǵ ѹ˹觷ҹԾҡѡ¹¹ "ѹٴ ;ٴ ҧ ͧդ աþѲ ǨС˹ҧ" ¹¶ "ҧ ֧оѲ"

"ͧԴҡѲ ͧ¹ ԹԨԨóҡ ¹Ԩó ö Ѻҧ٧ ҧ蹩ѹ͡ ˹觢ͧҡ ͤèоԨóա ҡ ػй С"

ѡ¹ա˹觶 "ҧ鹨зҧè֧зͧդҡ "

"ͧͧ¹ҡ ˵ػѭǹͧҷ ҷ ҧѹ դѭҩѹ պ ѹͺ ѹӻѭҹ件 ҧ ҹҹ令ҡ鹵"

"Ҩٴ١" ¹繴 ա "ҡշҹҨ ǡҨ¹ ҧ"

";ٴ١ ͵ͧ šդҡ ҡդ Թ㹹ҧµͧ 繤٢ͧ͹ ҷö١ͧ ǡҡӵҷ ҡҷէ ǡ ҷӵ"

ѡ¹þҡ ҧ¹ѺͶ֧ ѧҡ ͹١ ҳ , ܤ ض֧ժ§ ҧѧ繢عҧͧȴ

͢ҡ ͧӤѭ͡¹˹ѧͧ ع ˹ѧǡѺѵʵ ͧؤӤѭ˵ءóӤѭͧ ҧ ͹ .. ֧ ͹ .. ҳ ¹ѧաд ͧ¹˹ѧͺ ͹¹ ͧ ͨ͡Ңҧ͡ҹѹ ͢ҧ˹觶 աҧ˹觶;ѹ ¹ͧ ҧ͡ ѡ¹ͧҹ繡÷ӧҹԧѧ˹˹ ҧʹ͵¹᷹ҹ ҹ͡ " ͧѹ¹ͧͧ ЩѹͧùӷȹТͧѹ è ŧ仴 ѹԴҤѧ㨩ѹ гѹ Ҩ ѹ¹ ҧͧع"

͵͹ ֧¹˹ѧͷժ§ С÷袧 ͡ ¹繾 ѧ鹷ͧǡѺؤӤѭ ˵ءóӤѭҹ ֧١ѹ֡ ҧ١ͧ ҧ

з袧¹˹ѧͪعǹ ҹ¹¢鹴 ͪͺ繪ԵԵ ͹ҹȩ Թúŧŧ ѧǤ˹ ͹ դ֡ҡ Ƿҹͧͺͧŧ蹢 §ŧŧµͧ ѧ͹ѡ¹֡Ѵ ҹ觺շǡѺç¹ͧҹ Ѵѡ¹ ֡Ԩ·ҧ ѡ¹ҧդö駡úŧ СâѺͧ

ҹ鹺շժ§ѧҡ , Ѵ͡͡ Ǻ ˹ѧ áͧȨչ ͨԧ

㹻շ袧 ١¢ͧҹ () ֧

ѡ¹ҹѡش ¹ ֧

ա նѴ ҹ٭ҹѡشա˹觤ͨ

ҡ Ѵҹ¹˹ѧ˹ѡ ĴԢͧ ͹ .. ҹ ŧ Ѻҧ觨ҡô١ ҹդ֡ ժԵ դ

ѹ˹ ١ͨ͡ ;ٴѺ͡ "Ѻҡѹѹöٴա"

͡պ "ҡҹٴ ǾǡҨзҧ"

ҹͺ "äٴ лաѧ Ĵ "

㹷شѺҡѹ ͡ٴա ѹ紤׹Թ 㹷ش ҡ١ ͧҹ

ѭѡɳӤѭ觢ͧѲҳͧչ 繹ѡ֡Ҵҹѵʵͧչ ѧ繹ѡԴժ§ 㹤Դҧͧ 㹴ҹ០ǹ·ȹ ͧͧ ҹҶ֧ ͧ㹴Թᴹȵҧ ·ȹͧҹ ʺ ͷҹªԵ кûͧẺѡԹ ֧龺 ѡ ͧç¹ѷԢͷҹҧ鹹 ظҧԴ ö͡ôç кѡԹҹͧ

ѧѧѡԹҷ׹ǻҳ ѹһ ֧ͨѺ¡ͧ繹ѡҪ˭ ¾ѹշҹ ѡͧѷԢ֧ͨԷԾŵ͡ûͧȨչҧ

ѧõ¢ͧ ô١Ӥ͹ͧҹҷ˹ѧ˹ ع 觵 ١·ʹ繢ŷӤѭͧ֡Ԩ¶֧ѡͧ

÷ͺ֡һѵʵͻѵԺؤ ҹѵԢ ͤԴ з ͡Թ ͧһѵԺؤ ҹ ͧǹʹҡ ա ʺó˹ ͧԵҧҡô˹ѧ ҹͧҨҡ˹ѧ 觵ͧҹä ҡ餹 Ҩж֧ СҨдŧ դʹءʹҹ᷹ҧ ¡ͧ ˹ѧͧзд ҵͧäѹԧ ùѡ

ǧ袧繷֡ҵҽٹ ١ͧ 繡ԷԾŢͧС ҷҵҽ ֧ѹҨѴáѺ ѧյҧʹ颧仨ҡ鹩 鹩պ͡ҵͧ觵駢 ҵ çҢͨ 觨Թҽ ʹѺʹع颧Ѻ鹩 ж֧Ѻ鹩 "յҹ 鹩 ֧͹鹷ҹԴءҡ觷ҹз" ҽټ˵ؼ êԧժԧ 鹩 ҹҹ ÷袧鹩 ͹ͧ赹ͧ ҧҨж١ͧ

"öͧҹ繷Ѻ ҹѡͧͧ Ե㨷էͧҹҪ蹪ѡ Ҽ黡ͧҹͧ ѡͧͧ شҨ١"

͢Ͷ "÷黡ͧͧѡͧͧ ͧ繤¡й" Ѻ ͺ "ҷҹ͡Ѻҹͧ ҹͧ" Ͷա

"͹鹩 Թ§ŧ ŧ鹺֧͡Ѥѡǡѹ ֡ 鹵ѹҧҡ ҡ黡ͧҹͧ繷觢ͧɮ Ңعҧԧժԧ ͼŻª쵹ͧ蹹 繷觢ͧɮ"

Ѻӵͺ

㹷ش͡ԹҧѺ Թҧ繪ªҤ˹ŧ躹 件 Ѻӵͺ ˵طŧŧࢵе˹ѡ õͧ ŧ ա ֧ŧ˹Ңع

ա͹ʵ ١¢ͧ觧ҹ ١Ǣ֧ͧͨͩѧ 줹˹ ͧè ͩѧ¶١ͧж١ ͧ ˹ ź ͨѧ¨ ͩѧѧ "ʺҤá ¹͡ Ҩ͸Ժ¡Ѻء ١ǢͧҨ ١¢ͧҹ ͧ ˹ҧ"

ѹ觢 ͩѧҨѺҹʹž ͺ ֧ͨͧҧ١ǡѺ١ ͷҺ١줹 ǹͧ ֧ٴ Ѻ "ú͡ èҡ令駹Ҩ繷ءʹԵ" оٴѺͩѧ "ͧ ˹ʴҨ ¹͡Ӥѭԧ Ե㨷է Ӥѭ 觡 ҢҴҭ 觹Ƿ (ѹҾٴѺ) 㹤ҭͧѧդҷ Ҵ駤Դ ҤèлѺا ҷԧش ҭ ǧ觷ͧ ԡ ͹ҧǡǧҡǡا Ҩ༪ԭػä ¡ԡ (ٴѺͩѧ) Шԭ˭"

㹷ش鹾Ъ㹵ҧᴹ ҡ ¡ѹѴҹȾ ͡ʹ͹

"Ҩ顮ǡا㹡ûͧ ТҴ ѡ ѡҺҷͫѵ ѡ ѭ ѡͧ͡ ѡ͹Ѩ ǡҷ¨֡ ض֧ѡ Ҹ 蹴Թ㴷Դ蹻ǹ 觪ԧժԧ蹢 ҹ Դ ҨѺ Тعҧ ҡ ʧآ"

鹾Ъ ҧҽ繼ӹҨҪ ֧ԭ仾 ҧ ֧觤ͺͧӹŢз袧 ͵ͧ仢ͺس ֧ԴҨ ͹ ҧ ѧԭҾѹҧҧ (ҨҧҴó١ͧ ֧ ͡ҡҹҾ͡ҧҧ) ҧ֧͡ʹ颧ͪ ҧ ҹͧ蹻ǹ жҸ شó˭ ͡ش жشóԧ ֧ͨѺҡҨͧԴ

ͺ͡١ 觷¹ ùª ѡǧ "Ǫҧҧ Ҫ зҨỴ͹"

֧ͨͤԴ "觷秡ҷش Ѻ֡ 觷Ƿش ѹỴ͹"

ѹ˹觢;١仴ˢͧͧͧ͹çͧ÷ Ѻѡ͹ͧ ෹令˹ ˵駵ç ෹ӵ仨 ˨§ ͹͡ҡ ˡ§

ػ "觹͹ ûԺѵԵ繵ͧԴʹ 'ʹ' Ҥþ 觷赹ͧ á Ҵ Թ 繴շش ʹչ Ե㨷 ֧лԺѵ ѧͧѨ¹͡лѨѹ˹

þ¹ŧء §ءԺѵԵҧ"

- ͡˭ ѹѺ áҤ - ԧҤ -