ǵҧѭ

оطʶ֧ͧػҷҹִͤ蹶蹢ͧ
. ػҷҹ (㹡)
. ԯػҷҹ (㹷ԯԤ)
. Ѿػҷҹ (оõ)
. ѵҷػҷҹ (ҷҵ)

㹺ôػҷҹ ѵҷػҷҹѴдѺͧ ػҷҹ֡´ش ҡش ж͹ ҡش

⾸ѡӹѡѹȡ ͸Ժ¤¢ͧ ѵҷػҷҹ ҨҡҡѾ ѵ+ҷ+ػҷҹ Ҥ ִ ( ҷ) ѵҵǵ

­Դ㹡ͺͧطʹҡѡ ҨҡŤ¢ͧ ѵҷػҷҹ Ẻ繡þٴͧ㨪ͺ ҧá Ѻ¹ ¢ͧ ִѵҵǵ ҹ ⾸ѡ͸Ժ չὧԹ֡ҡ㹷ҧطѪ

Դ (Ǩѧ) ФԴǺʹ (concepts) ҧ ͧз͹ҹҧ ੾ҧԧɮ (theoritical terms)
ѡɳ繹ҧ ҷ çǧ ͹Ҥʹ е ҵѹ ҵѹ

ԴǺʹ⹷ȹ(concepts)з͹ ҹҧҷ ҹ ˹¾鹰ҹͧ Сͺѹ š觤ԧ 㹡Ѻ ͧ


÷ ִ͵ǵ觤¢ͧ ⹷ȹ(ͤԴǺʹ)з͹ ҹҧҹѵҵǵ ֧ҡҹ Դ֡֡Դ յǵͧ觵ҧ çҧó ǡҷó(absolute space and time)

ҧ 㹢зҵԨԧ ç§ǢͧѨغѹ ԴǴѺ ԴǴѺ ʹյԹҷշǡѺ٭ ç ˹㹡ǡ ͹Ҥ繤ҧҷѧ֧ç˹㹡ǡա蹡ѹ (ѭ) ФԴ(ѧ)
§Ҿ ҾͧçǡѺʹյ óҡûاѵҵǵͧ ˹觷з͹ҹҧ⹷ȹҤ ǩѹ
ִ⹷ȹ(ͤԴǺʹ)з͹ҹҧҤ ǩѹ ѵҵǵͧ ˹觷çԧ ҧ§ó 㹡ǡ ѹ ǵͧѹ 觹ѵҷػҷҹ

º͹Ҿ¹ ١任ҡҾ¹ҧͧ Ѻͧ §Ҿ Ҿ¹ еԴе͡ѹ 繺óҡâͧͧǵҧ зԴ֡֡Դյǵͧ͡ ҧ͡ - 繵ФëժԵԵ㨨ԧ Ҿ¹ͧ зҾ ⴴ ҡҾ¹֧Թҷ Ҿѧ դѺ ǵ觤 ͧФҾ¹ ֧Դ鹨ҡʤ׺ͷطѪ¡ ѹ ¨Եͧ任ا§ѹԹ繵ǵҧ
ִҤԴǺʹ⹷ȹԴҡûا觢ͧԵ (з͹ҹҧѭѡɳͧٻẺҧ) ѵҵǵͧ觹

ѵҷػҷҹ ֧ҡҹͧǢͧѭ ԴФպ繷ءѺ

ҧͧѵҷػҷҹͧ˹觷ԷԾš˹ԶժԵͧҧ֡ кѧɰԨͧšءѹ ػҷҹ ִ (ѭѡɳ) Թ ѵҵǵͧ ˹ ¡ѹ Թ 觷յǵŤҴçҧԧ㹪Եͧ

д͹֡¡ ѵ ֧դسҤ§ɡдɪ˹ҹ 繵ǵͧ ˹觷Ť㹵ͧ
ԷԾš˹ҷԶժԵͧ ǡѺǵ觤ͧ ͧ ѡä (դسҨԧ ѺԵ)
Ť (value in use) ͧԹҴѧ 繵ǡҧӹ¤дǡ㹡š¹͢Թҵҧ ͵ǵͧ ͧ ѡä Ťš¹ (value in exchange) 㹰ҹԹ ҧ˹㹵Ҵ ǵͧ Թ Ťҫ͢š¹ ѡɳԹҧ˹觴蹡ѹ

й鹶Ҥͧػʧ(demand)ͧյԹ Թ ҡػҹ (supply) ŤҢͧԹʡŹ ٧ (ǡѺҤԹ Դ ᾧ) 觼ҢͧԹʡŹ秵ᾧ

㹷ҧѺѹ ԵԹʡŴѧ͡ҡԹ ( 츹ѵ͡ҡ鹵Ҵ) ػҹͧԹԹʡŹ ҡػʧ
зҤҢͧԹʡŹŴŧ 觼ҢͧԹ͹Ͷ١ŧ

š¹͢Թ Թ ֧秡͹Ѻš¹͢ԹҪԴ

ͤҨСҹ͹ӵŷҤҶ١ҡѡع⡴ѧ ͹ӵŷ¢Ҵ ҴҤᾧ ͤҡк¹ӵ͡ҡ⡴ѧҢ
Ҥᾧ 繡áͺҡçҹҧüԵ觷繤سª ͪ·ŧع١ ѹ繡ҧżԵ ҤüԵԧѺŵͺ᷹§硹 зͤҫ ŧçҧżԵ Ѻͺ¡ ҡ 繸Фʹ͹ͧѧԴ м餹оҡѹԡҧżԵԧ ҷع͹ ŧعҤ 秡᷹ 繵

зš¹͢͡ѡعԹ Թ ö¡ҡáѡعԹ ҧóաáѡعӵŷ㹵ҧҧ ͧ⡴ѧҴ˭ Ѻѡع ӵŷ ͧդҢ ͧդҤҡóշԹԴ áѡعԹͧ¤ҹ 秡èҡԹ ԹٻẺҧ ҨٻͧԹҵҧ ͵ 㹵ҴѡѾ ֧繡Ԩ ҧɰԨ Ӥѭͧءѹ

ҳѹŤҢͧԹŧعҤɰԨ秡ٻẺҧ ҹšѨغѹ ԴŤ٧ԹŧعҤüԵԧ ҵ ɰԨẺͧʺ֧Դ Ϳͧʺᵡ 觼ԴԡĵóҧɰԨ价 ѧ¡ѧ༪ԭءѹ

ͧ ѡä з觵ҧ ǵͧҷٻѺͧ ֧ͧСͺ鹰ҹԵ
оطѧ ͹ѵ Ǥ ҧҨҡ觤繵ǵ

й鹨С¡Ѻ Թ 繹觨Ѻͧҡ դҧҨҡ觤繵ǵ觡 ѵҷػҷҹ
ִ觷ҧ觡ѵҵǵ蹹 ԪҷѺ͹鹴ѧ ҧѭҤպ 繷ءѺѺ͹ҡ

ҧ ɰըӹǹ šءѹ ԹҡҴѹ ҹ ҷ ѧ 㹪Ե (˹ ѹ ɰҹ ͤ ѹԹ, ѹ šѨغѹɰշԹҡ , ҹҷ ) èԹ 觢ͧҧ Һ ѹ ҹҷء ѹ ͧҡҡ ФФСԹѹ˹ ӹǹ˹ҹ ֧仫ҡ ҹ ˵عԹǹ˭ͧɰշ¨֧ͧŧع(к) ÷ҡŧع ŧع ҡ鹵ա (㹡ú ª ֧ͧŧع 鹵)

ŷش Թ§Ţ Ѻɰ(Ԫ)Թ , ҹҷ ѺԹ , ҹҷ դ ᵡҧâͧԵ
(еҧԹ͹ѹ Թ͡Թ騹зҧáѺԹѧ ͡ҡԹŧعҡ 騺͹ѹ)
ᵡҧѧǨ֧繤 ᵡҧѹŢ Ǽ餹ҡѹִ Ţ ҹ ѵҵǵ 觢ѹ觪ԧǧ Ţ ѹҡ

觪ԧѵ觢ͧҧ ѺͧѵҷػҷҹдѺ˹ 觪ԧԹͧ ѡɳ繹ҡ ѵҷػҷҹ ִҤҧ ѵҵǵҡ ǹ觪ԧ Ţ 繤ҧ ҡ觤繵ǵ ҡ觢ա Ԫ ŧѵҷػҷҹ ҡ зѺ͹觢ӴѺ

кعšءѹ ֧ѧѲȷҧͧФŧ 觷ҧҨҡҡ š֧ʹ͹ءѹ.

(ҡ˹ѧ ͡˭ ѹѺ ˹ -)


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