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ѹ Զع¹ҹ ѹúͺ ͧúءԡѧѵ ҵԸ˭ԧ
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سѡɳѺͧ Ѻ˹ѡ㹡 ǹЭҵԸ աͧ 纨ҹ ҧҹ ˹ҷ Ѻᢡ ТѺö ͹仺ءԡӡԡþ ҭ
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¡÷ӧҹ˹ѡͧҵԸ ȡ¤ ѹ ҹѧѵ Ш ¨ѧѴ ǷءҤͧ § Ѻҵسѡɳ м §ͧ 仾ҹ ѧѵԷ˹ ֡ѡ ҹ

շҹҼǢͧѺ ѧѵ ѵ˭ 鹨ҡö١ Ѻ ʹ Ե Ҫԡ "ҤԴ" ѧѺзҹѵ ͧѹ
ѡѧѵ
ҧѹԴ ѻѧ

"ҤԴ" ɳ "ҹǹآҾ" 繡úءԡͺ Դʶҹ آҾ ЪҪúǧ ѺйԸաѡآҾ ;ٴ֧ͧ ҡ ѧѵԢ Ѻٻ ҹҪԴ ٴͧתѡ ռѡþ % Ҩ繻 Ҧŧ Ҧ˭ ǹͧ ͡ѧ ҡ ͹¤ 衧

Фе駤ѧա բҧ˹ (ժԵ֧͹) ʶҹ آҾҧ "ҹǹآҾ" Ш㹨ѧѴҧ ǡѺ ҹѧѵ 㹪ǧ շ

 

͹Զع¹ ͢˹ѧ;©Ѻ ɳ ˵ؼ ˹ ҡǴǧ 仹ҹ 价˹ ¹ѴѹҷԵ Զع¹ 觺ѧԭ çѺѹ 鹷ش ͧ觢ѹ صš ͹ѹ Һ ͢ ж١صš ٴ

еҧҡѹ Ѵ͢ ǹêԧȿصšյ͹ ֧ռ͢ ҳ ҡҷҴ շ駼͢˹ѧ; ÷ȹ

͡ҡͧǡѺǼǡͧ ѧ㹤ʹ ͧ餹 㹢й

դҧ Ѻâµ ͧҧһաҧҵ շҧ㴷 ѧ ҭ äѴҹͧǡҭ ҧҺҺ 蹼óç ͵ҹ »Դ ͧҭ ͺ§ ҹͧ ѷŵ ǷԹ ҧ ҧպ 件ٻ á ͧѷ ʴ պԹ Ҽ ͨ˹ ¡ ͡ ˹ҷ ҧҧ жٻ ŧ ˹ѧ (ҤԴ) ѹ֡ ͧͧҭ ѡҹ

¾оٴѺ˭ѰŪش ׹ѹѺ仪ҹһաҡ Ѱ ش ͡ ӹ»ª ҧҵ ͹¡ ѡԳ Թҧ͹ѧ ѺӢͧ ´Ūѧ ŧع 㹻 (¶֧ ŵ)

͡Ѻ͢Դͧҵʹ ´ǵҧҵ ¤ Ǽ ¹ Ҩҡͧ͡ ͧäһաͧ¹ ҧҵ Էҡ ˹ҡ ҡ շع Ҩŧع 觷ҷ ҶѴ ͧäһա ҳ ҷӵ 觡Ѻ


͡äͧҭ ҹҧŵ
͢Ƕ ÷سԹѧСȵ "ѷһա" 鹨Ъѭ ͺ ѹ Դ ѧա ѷѧ зӡä Ǻ 觫 ҡҹһաͧ 仫ͨҡçҹ ҡ ҤҶ١ŧ ʹѺʹع ٹ һա

سç ⪤Ѳ ٤˹觢ͧç¹ӾٴҹҪѵ º êҹһա Ѻҧѡ ҧҵԹ ͹Ѻ˹ع Ѻ ˹عҧ ͧ ͡ Ǻ 蹾ҹҷ»

Ѻسͻ 㹧ҹ˹觷ͧҭ 觤س͡ ǡҭ ǧ ͧҵʹ ç͹Ҥ աõ͵ҹ ҧһաҧҵ ҧعç س Ҿ ͡ҡе͵ҹ 繡á һա ǹ͹ ͹ҹ ѺþѴҧ ҡҧҧҵ

Ѩغѹҧѡҧҵ ŵ ꡫ ҧáչ Тա ҡ ҧͧ 觨ҡ ҧ ա ǹҧ չ ա

ҧѡ觨зҧһաͧҡ 鹻 еҹ ա һѴèҧ Ҩҡ ء¹Ҩҡ ѡɰʵ ǡѹ "ӡҡش Ŵ鹷ع͹·ش" ҡ¡Ѻ 仵ԡ "Թ"

ҡ鹤׹ ͧɤ·駡һա С ǡѹѴҹ ҧԧѧ ˹ҷͧѰ Ǣͧ ᷹ҡࡳҧҧ ش˹ǧ ҢҢҡ Ѻӹ¤дǡ

ȷդ觷ҧɰԨ ѹ ഹ Ź ҨӡѴ ҧһաҴѡ ͧҧ һա ¡ѹ駹

ػ͢ǿѧ ͧ˭öѭ աͧ˹ 觡ѧ 㹢й ͧ "ç¹ٴ" ͧ ҧ ҧкͧѹ⡧ ءԵӹ֡ Ǣͧ Ŵ ԡ⡧ ⡧ͧ շ駹 ⡧§ ྪش

ԸաԸ˹觡 ¹ҡ繧 س 駾ǧ ¾ٴѧ Ȩ Тͧس੡ 仾ٴطʶҹ ȡ ҹ ѹ ´ ѧ͹ ҹ ͵͹ ѧա ҹ з觵

͢͡ ¹ҡ 繧 ͧ Թҵҧȫ͹ , ҹҷ ɵá ١ ҭ 繨ѧѴ˹ ١ҡ

Ҵ Ңͧ Ҩ è¹Ӷ 繤 "ѹ سԹѧ"

ͺè سʴԡ ׹ѹѺ ҵԢͧͤ˹ ˭ԧ¡ҧ ä д١ҹҹ ѹҡԹҴ ѹ ͹ ҹ Ǩ âҴŹ
㹡д١ Ѻ ֧鹻á

͢Ǫǹͧ "ûЪ ա" ׹ѹ ͧԢͧ ҡش ûЪ иҹҹѺӹǹ ѺáҴ úչ ͧԡ Ъ ҧѹ ͺѧѺ һЪç Ѻ ˹˹ С д ١͹غ

ҧءؤء Ҩͧǹѡͧ 觨еͧ֡ ʹ ûЪ ˹ҷ ͢ҴЪúҧ ͤ׹Թ͹ ѺԹ͹ ӧҹ ҧ ҹͧҡ

´ش ͧûЪ ʹиҹ Ѻӹǹ.. ǵͧФ պ͡ ҡͧЪ Ҩӹǹ úҧ͹ ѹշѺӹǹ պѺ ͧա 觡

ѡ˹ѧ;쩺Ѻ˹ ͤ Ѱŷӧҹ ռŧҹҧ § ӻС ʧ ͧ ͧá ѺҺ ҨԧҨѧҡ ʾԴ 繵ѹ ʧѺҡ ѧ 駡÷ʧ Ѻ⡧Թ ѧѺǡ˭

դǹ ¡ ѡԳ 繤ѹ ҴѺ ͧ 駹ѡͧ ҪûШ ӧҹ ¡ѹ ͧ¡ ŧ 觡 ҹҹҡ ҨԴ ҷӹͧ " зӵ աͧ˹"

͢˭ԧ˹ʹ Ҩзա ͧ ͼҸѧ ѧ 㹡ا෾ еҧѧѴ ֧㨵繨ԧ ҹ鹼

ѧɳ ѧաþٴ¡ѹ ʹŪ 駤Ӷ "صš " ҹ ҡ˹ѧ;쩺Ѻ˹ ҾѴصšͧѧ ҡ ҧ ҡ

駭սѹͧǡѹ ªҡèѴصš ҧҡ Ѻ çѹ ǿصš Ҥᾧ ʹ ¤͡١ö·ʹ ص Ѻҹ

㹰ҹҾͧ (ͧҡ) ͧԹѺا ҧʹ Թ֧ ͧʹҹҷ 觢ѹ Թ͹ ͤ 㹡ôѡ 觵ͧԹ ҡ

¤ѧԡԴ¨Ѵ觢ѹصš ԡ "ʧǧ" §繼 ҡ

ͧҪԡ Դ¡ "ҹͧ" Һ դ¹ʹ ˹ѧ; ʵ ࡳѡͧ ѺôѴѹҹ ҡç¹ سѹѴ óյͺ "ŵըͧ ѧͧ˹վǡ 㹨ѧѴҭ ѧ 觾ǡ ѧҹ¤Ѻ()"

(ҤԴ Ѻ áҤ )