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ش㨨¹ͷӤǡѺҵԢͧ "ӹҨѰ" Ъ繪ͧҧ 繷ҧ͡ ҡá觤Ѵ ͧӹҨѧ ҡҡҹҧطѪ ѹҨ ǤԴ "ɰʵͧԧط"


ɰʵͧԧط ͹

鹰ҹҧɮպح

͹͹ӤѭͧѡطѪ ԷѻѨµ ѹ繡鹰ҹҧҵԷǺûا觢ͧѧø͡ ¤ͺ֧ ԵԴҹ صع (ҵԷǺûا觢ͧѵظҧ ҷ ҧԡ 繵)
ժ
(ҵԷǺûا觷ҧҹԷҢͧժԵ)
(ҵԷǺûا觢ͧĵԡժԵ)
Ե
(ҵԷǺûا觢ͧԵ)
(ҵԷǺûا觢ͧþ㹸ҵͧ)

 

 

ҡἹ 㹢зöШѡ֧ѨЫ繤ԧ㹸ҵµç ͹Ѻ öšѹҧ˭ŷšµç 觷֧з ͺࢵ ͨӡѴ ͡ҧẺͧԧ㹸ҵԢ ͹ѺҧҾ Ἱš Ẻͧ ԧҧʵͧš

"" ἹẺͧԧҧ;з͹ҾѨФԧ 㹸ҵ ֧ "Ѩ" Ẻͧԧ ѹѨ ԧ

ҡشѺþ٨׹ѹѡҹҧ շҧԴ йҨ Ẻͧ § ѨФԧ㹸ҵҡش ҡ¡ش ¤ ҵ (Natural Laws) çǧͧǵѹ ҧԵʵ ҧáԷ ҧԡҧ 繵

зش˹Ҥ͹ҧ§ѨФԧ㹸ҵдѺͧŧ ҡ¡ "ɮ" (Theory) ɮѷҾͧ͹䵹 ɮçҧ˹ҷ 㹷ҧѧԷ ɮ Ѳҡ ͧԹ 㹷ҧԷ ɮըԵ ͧ´ 㹷ҧԵԷ

繤դŴŧաдѺ˹ ͧҡѧҹþ٨׹ѹҧҧҧ ǹҹ ҡ ҡ¡ "ͺԴ" (Conceptual Framework) "Ẻͧ" (Model) "԰ҹ" (Hypothesis)

ҢҤࡳԹԨ ش˹öз͹ҾѨФԧ㹸ҵ § ҡѹ ͤҹҳԷ (Epistemology) 㹷ҧѪ 觻Ѩغѹ ǤԴ ˭

) ¤ʹͧ׹㹤͸ԺࡳԹԨ (Explanation Theory) ش˹ ö ͸Ժ»ҡó㹸ҵҧ˵ռ դʹͧ ׹ ҧá 㹪ش ͧ͸Ժҡ ͪشͧҨ § ѨФԧ 㹸ҵ觡

) ¤㹡äҴࡳԹԨ (Prediction Theory) ش˹ ö ҡó ͤҴ๻ҡóԴҧӡ Ҥش ҨѨ ԧ 㹸ҵ觡

ҧشҨѡҾ㹡͸Ժҧ׹٧ վѧ 㹡äҴ 觷Դ ɮѲҡâͧժԵ 繵

зҧشҨдѺͧʹͧ׹ҧá㹪ش͸Ժµ繷ɮ ͹ ( ͹Ҥ е ö駤͹Ҥǡѹ 駷 ͹Ҥ ѹդسѡɳзѴ駡ѹ) 鹰ҹͧɮչ Ѻö äԴӹǹ ҧ ö ҧԴҳ 繵

Ẻͧԧ㹸ҵԹ Դ鹨ҡûا觢ͧ⹷ȹҧ (Concepts) ˹¾鹰ҹ ͧ ⹷ȹҹԴ鹨ҡ÷Ҵ ѡɳлҡó 㹸ҵ (觾طѪ ¡ "ҡ" "ԧ") ѧࡵ繵ǵͧ觪 (觾طѪ ¡ "Ե") ͧ觹 ҧ 繤ԴǺʹ (Conceptualization) з͹ ҹҧҷѾ੾ (觾طѪ ¡ "") ѭѵԢ ᷹⹷ȹ ѧ

ԪҢͧС˹觡 ִ⹷ȹз͹ҹҧѵҵǵ ͧ觹 觾طʹ¡ "ѵҷػҷҹ" (ѵ+ҷ+ػҷҹ = ִ ѵҵǵ) ֧Դ Ѩ Դҡûا ͧԴФ ֧ԧ ѵѨ 㹸ҵ

⹷ȹһا觡ѹµáöҧẺͧͧ繷ɮյҧ 鹹 ͹ ǹǵͷ繢ͧ öҵ͡ѹٻçͨͧẺ觵ҧ ҷ ҹͧ ö¹ ͧ ֡٧ͧ оҹͧ й 㨤¢ͧ⹷ȹ з͹ ҹҧ ö ⹷ȹҹ §ѹ Ẻͧ ԧ ش ͧҵ С ɮ ҢҴҹ鹢

鹰ҹͧɮɰʵͧح㹾طѪ ֧ùҪǹͧ⹷ȹ з͹ ҹҧ ԧԪҡ (theoritical terms) 㹷ҧɰʵ Ѱʵ оطѪ §ѹ Ẻͧ з͹Ҿҡó ҧѧ ɰԨͧ ͧ

ҧá ͧҡԷѻѨµҤͺ駡ûا觢ͧѧø㹸ҵԷ"١" ûا ͧ⹷ȹ Ẻͧ "Ѻ" з͹ҡóͧѧø 㹸ҵ з ҧԵʵǺ ûا 觢ͧ ѧø㹸ҵԷ١ ҧ áԷ Ǻûا ͧ⹷ȹҧ СͺѹẺͧ ͡ͺ Ѻ з͹ ԧ 㹸ҵԴѧ ҧ Եʵ ѺҧáԷ ֧դѹѹ ҧṺ ѹѴ աþѲ кáԷԧѭѡɳ (Symbolic Logic) ¤֧ Ѻ ҧԵʵ

ҡԷѻѨµ ¤
. 觹 觹֧ (A B ; A, B ʹͧѺ "Modus Ponens" 㹷ҧáԷ)

. 觹 觹 ( B ~B A ~A ʹͧѺ "Modus Tollens" 㹷ҧ áԷ)

. 觹Դ 觹֧Դ 觹Ѻ 觹Ѻ (A B ~A ~B, A B ʹͧ Ѻ equivalence ҧáԷ)

. ͧѹҹ "" ¶Ҥ "觹" ¶֧ A B Сͺѹ ֧觼 Դ C (A.B C) ҢҴ A B ҧҧ˹ C Դ ( ~A v ~B ~C ʴ ~(A.B) ~A v ~B ʹͧѺ De Morgan ҧáԷ) Ѻͧѹҹ "" ¶Ҥ "觹" ¶֧ ͡ҡ A B ҧ ˹ Դ C (AvB C A ˵Դ C ~A Ҩػҵͧ B Դ C ͹ ʹͧ Ѻ Disjuntive Syllogism ҧáԷ)

¾鹰ҹͧԷѻѨµҷ繡ҧáԷ͢ҧ鹹 öҧ ҧáԷ աҡ ͹觷繨ԧ (Axiom) зɮպ ҧâҤԵ Ҩö ٨ҧɮպ âҤԵաҡ

㹡ҧɮպح ҡԷѻѨµ͡鹰ҹҧáԷҷҢҧ Ҩеͧ Ҥѹ ҧ觷˵ (A) 觡ԴŴ ͧǹԹ ͧԵ 繼 "ح" (B) 駤ҤѹҶԴح (B) 觼 ѭ ͧ Ŵŧ ҧ (C)

è֡Ҥѹͧ˵ػѨҹҧ繷ɮպحҹ 鹰ҹӤѭ Сá еͧ öѺҾ "ҡ" ͧ˵ػѨµҧ ͹ ǡ˹ Ѵਹ 繶֧ ᵡҧ "ԧ" ԧҳФسҾ ͧ˵ Ѩ¹ ʹ ͧ ͧ Ѵ "Ե" 觨繵Ǻ觪˵ػѨ´ѧ Ǩ֧ ػ ԴǺʹ (Conceptualization) з͹ ҹҧѾ੾ "" ѹ Ẻͧ (㹷ҧԴ) ͧ˵ػѨ¹

еͧѺҾä "ҡ" ͧ觷¡ "ح" Фᵡҧ"ԧ" ԧ ҳ ФسҾͧ觷繺حѡɳҧ ʹͧҵǪѴ "Ե" ͧ觷 繺ح ٻѹöѺͧѴ öѴ 觹 繺حҡ͹¡ա ˹ ҧ Ѿ੾ "" ͧҤ "ح" ֧չ ·Ѵਹ ö 繾鹰ҹ 㹡ҧɮպح 觡Ѻ ɮ 㹷ҧɰʵͧ 繵 觨¤ 㹵͹

ҹͩѺ˹

(ҤԴ Ѻ ѹ¹ )


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