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ѹ¹
͹ѹ¹ ͧйʡŷǹš ѧ繷ʹ㨢ͧѡ ҡ˹ѧ;Ԫ ɳ ͷҹغ ( ..) 红ŷѹȡ ҡҵԸ ͹վͧ ˹ѧ;Ԫ ( ..)˹ Ǣͧ ͹Ӥѭ䩹? "ѹȡ"š Ҿ ͢ҹ ´ ʹ㨵Դҡͧشѹȡ ͧش价˹ѧ;쩺Ѻѧ

ǡѺ·ҹѺзҹѹ բ ·ѹ Ҩҡ§ ͹ ҨҡõǨͧ˹ .. ֧ͺ繾ͷҹǡѺѡûԺѵҹҢͧȡ èҧè֧ ( ..)

ҹҪѧ¹駪Ǻҹɵááеҧ ¡ѹҢѺͺ ˹ҷҡ зǧ ɵ ѧѺèѴ ҡѧѺѭ ֡¹ дѺǺҹ¡ѹ ǡҡ Ѻӡѹͧ дѺҪ դ ȵ˹ âҺҧ ͹ǡҨç ѡ йͷҹ ô ;Ѻô Ҫҹ 觾ͷҹѺȹء ǹͺ Ǻҹɵá Ѻȹ繻 ¡ҡ ҧաҤҡ ͧ˹§ҹ Ҽǡѹ Ҩ ١Ңͧ ... ѧСԹҡҤ ͧҹͺѡٵ ѨԵ͹ ֧˹§ҹ . 繾鹰ҹͧѧѴغ ӪǺҹ Ѻ ͺ 㹷ҾҢ͢ҹ´ ʹ㨵Դҡ ѹ ,,,, , .. ǹ˭ͷҹȹ ҹʹѳ §ȹѺ ˹ҷҡзǧɵ .. ҡҧ

зҹͺҡ ҹ"ҧҹủͧ" շ駡âԹ âԹ١ѧ ÷Ӷ ҧç͹ҹ ҧ ͹ ֧õ觵ҧ ͧ ͧ˹ѡ ШӹǹҪ§ҹҹ ͡ҡ˭ չѡ¹ҹҧǹ˹çҹ ѭԴ ͽº ˭ҧ §ҹ Ҵ ӡԨѵ շ԰ §Ҫ§ҹͷҹ ԴлԺѵԸ ˭ҧ 繵ҧ ѡ ˹ҧͺآ ͷҹ ͧȹѳ 㹪ǧ .. Ƕ·ʹѭҳ§ ѧ طʶҹ ͧѡɳẺ պҧ ŷ ҡȹѳɹ ѹ觢 .. зӧҹ ҹҧ ǡѹ ͢Ҿͷҹ ѹ ŧͪ ѭҨлԺѵ º

ѹҷԵͷҹȹطҹح ¾ͷҹԷ¹Ǣͷʴ ԴС ǧ˹ ҧѹȡ · Ժա͹ оͷҹԴ Ǣͧȹͧ "觨 觾鹷ء" Ǣͪͧá ͷҹ¹ɳ طҹح "ӷҹҧ ֧Ծҹ" Ǣ ͧ ͧ͹ѹ¹ (, .. ӴѺ) зѹҷԵ ͹ ͷҹеͧ Թҧ Ъ ѹȡ лȡ 价ѹȡ ( ..) ѹ֡ ¡ "ط 仹Ծҹ" Ѻ оط ѹʯ ͡ҡ ҧ ䷷. 觷¡ Ңҧ鹹 ʹҧҡ 㹷 Ҿ ͢ҹ ʹ㨵Դ ҡ

зӧҹͧ͢ҹҪ ·ԫմաúá¢ͧͷҹ ǹͷҹӺ»Сͺ 㹷 ҧ .. ӡѹҧ ͧ չѡ¹ 繼ѴҾ§Сͺ Ҷ֧ѹ¤ ѧӺ¹

ҹҪ俿ҴѺ ǹ˭ѺǡԴҹ ѹ .. 俿ҴѺ仹ҹ ͷҹѧ Դ ͧ ӧҹ ẵ ǵʹ ¹˭ ռҶ¨ش᷹ ʧ ͷӧҹ

͹͹͹ȡ( ..) ʹҹѧ͹ȡ ʹաѺҤ (dz ç) ֧ġ 仩ͧҤ 觨ͧش н¸áâͧ֡ ¾ͷҹ 仺Գҵ Ǫ ҵáѹ ҡ ֧ȹ ͹ѹ աǵ Ҫͧ͢Ҥ ѧ ش ͧҡҴҹҧ ͺح ѧѹ Դ͡ ʹҫѡѭ ͹ԹҧѺҹҪ

.. ѹȡ зӧҹͧêҧ ͷ᷹ N 70 Ӽš÷ͧҹʹ ͷҹ Сͺ ʺѡ ҧҹ Ѵͧ ´ҧ δ͡䫴 ӻԡ Ѻѹת Ѻ Ѵͧ ҹ , ͧ 仴 ᨡ ȡ ͧ Ẻͺ ¡͡ ֧ŷԴ ҡ 觡ѺҴ êҧͧ ѧ ҹ õǨͺ ҡ ͡. 辺þɵҧ Ũҧ 礧ͧԴѹ

س٪ ÷ͧ ʹյѡ¹طѹҷԵѹȡ ͺعͧ ..¹ɰʵ ԭ ҧ ҧ ͡Է ¹ »ʧй ɰʵح Ӵ ֧һ֡Ҿͷҹ .. ҡʹ Դ Ե Ȩ

آҾҢͧͷҹ ҡ仾آ ᾷǪҭä ѡҴǧҾͷҹ» Ѻ Ǩ ٹͻҷ (Macular degeneration) ҡèͻҷ dz (macular) ͡ҧ͵ Ф١ · ѡ㹼٧ ä˵آͧ ҡ ҺʹʹԷ 㹼٧تԡѹ 辺·ش

ѡԨҡѹǹǢͧ ˵µçѧҺѴ ǹ˭繷ҷ ҧ Ҩ繾ѹ աҧ繡͹ ͧҡä ѡ ҡ纻Ǵ ֧ѡ з ͵ͧ

ä Դ Դ辺繪Դʹ(¡) (exudative macular degeneration) ʹ ѧ ͻҷ դԴ ͵պ᤺ŧ 秵 Ҵʹ§ dz ʹ ʹ͡ ͧ͵ dz ж١ ռŷ еçҧ ҾѴ

Դͧ繪Դҽ() (atrophic macular degeneration) ԴҡաúǹѺ 㹺dz ʹ͡ ͹Դ¡ ͻҷ ͧԴ Ф Ҿçҧ ͧ Ҩѧࡵ ҹ˹ѧ ͧ͡ ¶Ѵ 繷ͧҧ 㹷ش öӡԨ ͧ¤Ѵ ͧµ

Ţҧ鹹ҡ˹ѧ ͧä ҧ ͧѹ Ѵ ѷ մ ʷ () ӡѴ

ѺͷҹẺá ʹʹ еçҧҾѴͺʹ״ʹԷ

ѧҡآӡõǨѡ ѧҢҧաҧ˹觷ѧҡ ѧࡵ ҡ Դ 㹡ͧ Ҿʹ ͡ҡآ ѧ֧͡šз ҡ ҡõ͡Ш Դ ѧѡ ء зӡѡ ҡþ آ ..ҹ آ ҳ Ҩзӡѡ ͡Ш ҳ չҤ [ ѹظ .. çҺҸԺ ..Ѹ ʴ]

ǧ͹ѧաûЪҧШ͹ Ҩ繻Ъѹȡ( ..) ЪҳԪح ( ..) Ъ ͧ ( ..) ֧Ъ ȡ ( ..) 㹷ҾҢ͢ҹ ûЪҧ

.. ѹȡ зӧҹԨͧ "ҧآзҧԵԭҳ : ֡ҡóժȡ" ͡ ҡ 仹ʹ ҹԨ ͧͧѡԪҡ·ҹ յѹȡ 㹷ҧ йӵҧ ѺзԨ¹ ա˹ ȡ Ѻ黯ԡ ѡԪҡ ͧȡ ҧ

ʹԹ͹ͧ ͹ԹҧѺغ .. Сѧ͡Թ dzѺԡ ٻ˹ ҷѡ ʹҡѺͷҹ ҷҺѧ . Ҩ Ѵ .§



ѺûԺѵԸ ѵ
.. ͧӧҹ(..Ծҹ) ҹҪ оͷҹѧӧҹ ѺѾҡ˹ҷ˹§ҹ .. (ǨԹ мԵѳ ͧȡ) ˹ ¹سԹ ͧõǨͺ Сç˹ ҹ ͧȡ ҡʹҴѧ

˹ҷ .. : Һʡäоͷҹ ͧ¹Ф ҡº·ҧ˹ ¤ ҷҧ . ҧ ʹ 觨 㹷Ъ ͹ҡ . ҨҡȨչФ ˹ ǡ仫 ҧ . к͡ѹ չҹ դ§ Դ ѧЫҨ˹µ ҨеͧǨѹШ Ҩмҹҹ ͤ աõǨءѹ ҡ ҹ ҹçҴ ҡԴҵǨա ׹ѹ¤ ҡͧµǨ ѹ ҡ¹ سԹ -ͷҹ ¹Թҵҧ ѹ 㹡ùҢ.....

ͷҹ : ǤسҢͧ㹻ȷ˹Ң

˹ҷ .. : ǤԴͧҧ͡ º·й Թҷդ§ ҡͧ

ͷҹ : Դѹͧ 褳С㹺ѷ ¡ѹ Т´ ҹͧ ѹբʹҹ բʹ ҹ áҡѹ ʹ ҨʹѺʹع ҧȷ ҹͧ ѹբͧҧ е Ң Դҡ

˹ҷ .. : չ ҵѡ 繡׹ѹ֧ش ͵ͧ纵Ǩ ͷк͡Ѵਹ ա˹ չ պҧ Թҵҧ ѹդ§ ԡ ͧ仵Ǩա ҧ

ͷҹ : ǵѹ ҹ觾ٴѹͧ ǡ§ѹ騺 Ҥ ͡ѹբǹáͧ ǵѹ ǡѴҧ ԺѵԸ ŴФ繢ͧ ҧ

˹ҷ .. : һЪ¤

ͷҹ : ..ҹ

˹ҷ .. : ͷҹ صѹ㹡ͧ ..Ф ͧԴ 㹷Ъͧǹҧ ͡觻ʹ صҷЪ͡ ..ҡա...

ͷҹ : ͹ѹ 餳Сǹҧ չâͧѷͧ繵ѡ Т ѷ ǹҧ 觤 ͡ ҧ ..ͧ ӹҨ ѧѺҡ ѹաâ ͧҧҵ ҧ ѹ

˹ҷ .. : Щй ա˹觡ͺ͡ ͧ仵ǨҪѴਹ ѡõҧ ҨѴ ҧ ¤ ͺҧҧ ѹ

ͷҹ : ѹբͧ·ѹͷ᷹ ᷹㹰ҹо ҧѹ͹ Ҩ ҧȷ ѹ ѹ ҡͧͧҧ ѹ繹

˹ҷ .. : Ǩԧѹդ ͡ ѹ ѹվͻҳФ

ͷҹ : ѹվͻҳѹӺҡ ѹӺҡ ѹҹ͹й Ԩ¡ѹ ѹբ ҧҹ ҧ ҧ ش Ԣͧ

˹ҷ .. : դ˹觤ҨҨԧѧФ ֡зء

ͷҹ : ¢ͧҢѴ Ҩ㨵 ѹͧҤṹ ͧṹ ѹ ûԺѵԸ 㹵Ǵ ѹԸա÷.... ش 颺ǹá ǡԨ¡ѹ ŧ ǡ稺

˹ҷ .. : ͧҧԵԺؤͧеͧԡҡҧ 仵Ǩº¡͹ 觶ҵç ǡԩѹ Ҩзӵ Ҵԩѹ ç¹ ҤԴ ҹҹҧ...ҨШѴ

ͷҹ : سӡ͹ǡʹ ҡ仴Թ㹤Сâͧ Шش ˹ ҡӢͧ Ҩ äç˹ Ҩشç˹ ͧͧҹ ѹ仢ش ҹ ѷ

˹ҷ .. : Ҩäͧ仵ǨФ

ͷҹ : äѧ Ҩз 繴 价ҧ 繴ҡش 繴 ҡ 繴 ҡ 繴 件֧ç ҡشͧͧ ش ҵա֧ش 件֧ ѷѧح 繺ѷش 繡ش 件֧ ҡش ҡԷ кѷͧ Сâͧ Ԣͧ è仺ѧѺ

˹ҷ .. : çջѭ Ҩ仵Ǩ ١ҧҧйФ

ͷҹ : ǡҡӡâҧ سҡз س ҷҧҡ仢ҧҧա ҧ Ҩҧ з ش

˹ҷ .. : ҺʡþͷҹҹФ

ͷҹ : ǡѵҡѧ 仵ѹ ҧѹ繩ѹ ѹͧͧ 繡ûԺѵԸ 㹵.



ѡ ͧ
ҡѭҷ褳зӧҹҹҧ 駼˭硹ѡ¹ վĵԡ͹ Դ㹡ࡳͧ ¡ҧ ˵ؼӤѭ ͧĵԡ͹ еͧӧҹ ˹ѡ˹ Ͷ١ԧ͹ Ѻշ԰ һԺѵԸ §ҷӧҹ ҹ º ͷҹȹ ʡѴء ҹ¢ǧ͡ ֧ͷҹȹ 㹪ǧѵ .. ѭҳ§ ѧطʶҹ Ъ ͧҡѭ ӹͧҧ աѹ· 觴 ҡҺҧǹ ͷҹ ѧ

"ҵҡӧҹҵԺһ ء ǹ ҵҡҤ㹸ТͧоطҨԧ ٴ ٴ 蹪 ¤鹵ѹ Ҥҹ .. оطǹ ѹ繤԰ ѹ繤آ ѹ繤է º

ҵͧš..ʧҡ ੾Ф·繪Ǿط Ңͧط ͹ѹ Ѻ֡Ҷ١ͧ ҡ繤Ңͧʹҧԧѧѡѹԧ ¨ä- âͧʹ ä -Ũԧ ըԵ Ƿ繻ѭ ԧ 繨ԧ Һ駨ԧ ѹ ԰ Ҵ˹

ҵҡѧ ѧ դ ;ǡҹȡ ¤ջѭʧ㹸 ҧ ҵҾ仹 ˹ 駵һԺѵ оĵ仵ҵҾҷ ä-ռšѹ Թ˹ ѧվǡ ҧὧ ͧҹ 繨ԧ ҧ ͹Ѻ շҧ ѧդسҾ ҧ 仧鹹 Ҩԧ ͡ҡҨԧ ѧ͡ һԺѵԸ ҷӧҹ ѹ 仧 ҵʧ Դѧ ͡һԺѵԸ Ҹ ..ҵ ˹ Դ Ե ֧״ ѹ繢ͧ شʹ 觡ྪ 觡ҷͧ 繡ѹ 㹹 ѹ繹 ҧ͡ ء Ѻ ǹʢͧҧѧ ҧ͡ Ҥй й ѹ餳з....дѺѡ 繢Ҫê٧ ҡѹ ͧԹ Ҵ٧ҹǡ ੾й öФѹ ٫Թ ö Դ ҿѧ Ҵ

ءѹҵҾٴҧԴ¡ ¨лԴѧӾҧ ͹Ǵ« ѹ֧ҷеͧ Դ еͧ дѧҡѹ й ҵͧԧ ͧä˭ ҵͧԧ ԧ..˭ ҡ Ҩ ˭ ѵԹ仹 ֧ѹ.. չ

ҹԹԹ Թҧ仴٧ҹ ͧҹ ѹ ˭ѧ ҡ觤Ѵҡ ºԹ ¹ 蹡繼 ҧҹ ԭ ҧ ҡ ҡѴǹǴ´ Ҥ ͡ ҷȷҧ ҵҾҷӹ ѹȷҧ 价ӧҹ "ʧ" ҧ "ҧ" 鹢Ѵ ͧѡ 㹾ǡͧ ١ٴ ١Ѵ ҧ ѹѴԹ ѵҢͧͧ ⴹѴ ׹ѹ âѴ㹾ǡҹ 觻԰ Ţ ա 㹾ǡ Ѵ㨡ѹ ѹ觻԰ Ѵ͹Ѻ ҧ͡ ҧ͡ҢѴͷ ҪФФҹ Ѵ Ѵͷ º Ѵ Ѵͷж蹦ҡѹ ѹͧѺ ǡҹ Ѵ ǡҹ ѲҢ Ǥ ͹ŧ ŧ仹 Ѻͺ ͹ҧǴմ¹ ...֧ҧ

ҵ֡˴ ѡաѹҴ ҵ ¤ӹҨ աõͧ ǡԴѹ Դѹ ҡ ҵ ͻС ѹ¹ ͧԺѵԸ 軯ԺѵԸ͡ ú͡"" зӧҹҹ з..ӧҹ ͻԺѵԸ ӧҹ ͷԴ ǡ ҧ õ ҧ ǡش觷ҵ ҧҡ ҵ ˹˹ ҵʹ ҵҷҧ Դ ÷ȹǹ ö ÷ȹ ͡ǹ ǹкҹ ѧ Ǵҧ 觴÷ȹͧ ѹҢҴ˹ ѹ Ҵ˹÷ȹ ǡس ҷҵ ͡ ѹظ ·ش Դ˹觢ͧѧ ÷ȹ ͧ ·ع ͧͧ͢ ҵ˹˹ ͧõ ˹¹ ˹ ѹͧ ͧ ͧʾ ɳ ҡѹ ˹ѡ˹

ªҵԨеͧշ դ繡 繡 ҵҡҤ㹷 㹡 ǡ դسѡɳз ҵ ǴҧѺ ҹ誹 ͺآ 觷 пѧѹҧ ѹѡࡳ 价ӵ Դͧ ҵҡ к͡ǡѹ ѧ е㨴 к͡

Ҫҹȡ觤Ѵҧ Ǿǡҡ͡仡ѹ ǡͺҧ ҹҪϹ й ҹ ҡҹ ˭ҹ աҹ ԭҹ ҧҹѵء 餹 繤ࡳ ҡҹ ҹ ա» ҵҡ ջѭ Щй ҧѹҴ ҧҹѡ ҧҹ˭ ͷҵͧ ׹ѹ ҹ ͧ˭ ͧ˭ ҨеͧѲҵͧء ͧѲҵͧ դس ѡ

ҵ繷ҧѧšʹԸ ˭ Ө ѵѵҡҧ ҵҡ ʹ Һ 褹ѹա ʹ͹ -Ǵѹ 觺

Ҥդس ѹй¨硨СШ͡ ͹ʹҡ ѹʹ ѹآ Шҡ դس Ե ҧء ѧʹ ʹ͹ʹ µʹ ѧ˹ ҧ

͹͵աͺ ҹҪϨе˹ҵ駵觤Ѵ ͷҧ Ҵ٧ҹ Ҵ֡ҹͧ ѵ ͷҧ ѡ͡ ѹ ͧСͺ˹ҹͧ ҵҡ è ֡ 觾ǡ͡ ֡"" ǡҹҧҡ

оطҷҹ鹾 Ҥ"" ѹôšصø ѵشվоطҨзҷ ҹ §ѧ ҹշءҧ Ѿħ ءҧ ҹзҷ ҧ "šصø" ԰ շش 褹ͧ

͹ѧҧ͡ ҴТ ҡͧҴ 觷֡ ѵ 觷Ҵ դس ըԵ վĵԡ Ẻšص

ءѹ ѧҵ ºẹ Фس ҨӹҢҷءѹ ѧࡵ ٫ ҪǺҹ һѭҪ дѺ ҷ ҡʡѺѵغҧ ҡ ѹҷѹ˭ ᵡҧҡ 觷 蹪 ѹǡ Ҵǹ ѧ ҡѺҺ駾ǡ Һ駪Եǡ Һ駤سǡ Դ õ÷ء ú͡ ..ѹ... ˭ Թ 鹵˭ Ҩš ҨлзѺ㨹Դ˹ ֡ ҹ "" ѧ 繡 ѹҧ Ч 㨼Դ ҵ ٶ١ѵ ǹ ҵͧѵ ͹ѹ

ҵ⾸ѵͧþ ҧȨͧš ҧҧ͹óǢͧ˹ ҧ 觹鹢 ҧ ѡ ͧͧ Թͧ ͧЪҪ ҧŧع ҧǦҪҧ ? ҧ ҧ蹵 Ǩ仴 Ǩ ѹ ͹ó ͧǷ ͧ˹

Ȩҧҧ Ҩзӡѹ ʹ ءѹ 餹Թ仪 ͧ˭ ͧš ͧҹ ջª ʴ çҹ ͧŧ㹷 ҧ 觹鹢 ʴ֧ ͧͧ ǤҺء ء ҧ¨ ˭ ѹ ԰

ʹҾطԺѵԸҹ ѧѻСͧҹҧԵ Ҩҡ͡ûԺѵԸҧҨ ҡѹ ͡ûԺѵԸ ǡѺçҹ Ҫ ͡ûԺѵԸǡѺҪվ 繢ͧط Щй ÷ӧҹ ѺûԺѵԸ ѹ¡͡ 軯ԺѵԸ 鹡ѹ 㹡çҹ ҧ §١ ˭ͧԹ ª쵹 ªҹ §١仾ҧ ˭ ͧ仾ҧ 蹤͡ûԺѵԸͧط ջªͧҹ 駡çҹ 駻ԺѵԵ ûԺѵԸ ͧͧ͡ ûԺѵԧҹ ͧ ͧûԺѵԸ ûԺѵԧҹ͡ Ҹ ԺѵԸͧ ǡҧҹҧ ͧӹҨ ͧ 軯ԺѵԸ ͻг Դҧ鹷駹 "" ѧ

ءѹҵȹ֧Ҵ ..ҹҧ㹻 ѡͧҹ ҹ ѧ? ٴ¤ ͹ ٴ ͸Ժǡ׹ѹ سԹѹ Ҩҧ ءҴ 繴·駹 ѹشʹ ҹͺآ ҹ Թ ѡ ٺѡ ҹ ǹ ʢͧ ѹԧ ѺԹ Ѻͧѹ æѵ ѹҹ ѡ ͧ͡仨ҡҹ Դ ͧ͡ ҡҹ 繵 Ӥѭ ӧҹ ѺԹ͹ѹ Թѹ ѵǹҧ 駷ԹҹͧҤ Թͧ "Ҹó" ˹š..?

ѭҷաѹšءѹѹҧ ФѺФͧ 觴չ ¡ѹФѺФͧ ҧ еͧ 繤 繤ش ҷҧ · ù

оطҷҹ "һ ҷ" ҹʹͧѭ 繤٧ 繤ӵʷҡ شʹ 觤 ͹ͧ һҷ ! ѹɢҴ˹ Դ

ҵҡҡТͧ ҵҺҧ ͧ ¡ѹ ҵҡպح ҷ ѹ ҧ Ѳҵ ѹ Ҩе ͡ʷ

ͺسԧ ҡ㨨ԧͧҵ ǡҹФ ѹͧͺس Фҡ йá վǡس ҵҡ ͡ ֧Ҵ ǡҷء ȡ й ҡ ͧͺس ѹҡ ͹ áѹ ҧҹ Դҡĵԡ ͧ ԧ õ ѹԴ ҵҨеͺ᷹觷 ѹ ֧ȹ Һ͡ ѲԴ ѺاͧԴ һ» µͧ ҵø´ ҵҨһШҹ ͧоطҹ ʹç ٴء ͧ ٴ˵觷ء ͧ˵觤 ˵觤 ǡҧ 觷Ҫ ʹҷ¡ ء

оطҶ֧ ä-ҹ鹷з ä- ԧ ׹ѹ 繾طԧ ͧ ҧ ѹеͧѴ еͧ͡˵觷ء ѹеͧ͡ 觷 ͧպ觷͡ 觷͡ Ѻ ѹҹ ѹ ѺҡѺѧ 觷 ѹѺ ͧպ͡ ֧ԭ оط ѧ "ѧѳԵ ˹ ͼ աԴ ѡ " 繤ӵʷѴਹ ҹº͡ "ѧ һ ǪաԴ ѡ " ͡ѡɳ ͧʹҾط ʹҪҧ ѧ.. ԡѹеͧ ҷ Ż ԸյԺҧ ҵȹҹǴ"

ѹ觢 .. жѡح ҨԵح Ӥзӧҹҹҧ 駼˭硹ѡ¹ҳ ҡҺʡ ͢ Ѻͷҹ 繢ͧФ СͺӢ͢ ӹ֡Դ ѡɳѡ ͹ѭҵ;ͷҹ лѺاͧ 㹡ù յ᷹ зӧҹҹҧ 繹ѡ¹ 繼ҹ Ӣ͢ҹ 繢ͧء 繡ӡѺѺͧ¢ͤ ͹ͷҹ ѡҹ Ӣ͢ҷҹ 㨤ѧ

"Һʡþͷҹ ҹҧЪŧѹ ҹФӹ֡㹤Դ ͧͧ Ф лѺا ¹ŧͧ Шѡ 㹡º ͧѴ ¹ŧ ĵԡ 繺һҡ¤Ѻ Ѻ÷ӼԴ 㹤駹 ١Ѻ ҡͷǡѷ ѡ þ 駷͡˹¡Ѻҹҡ ǵͧҤԴͧա ١¾㨡ѹ Ъ§ҹ ҡش ŴС ѡ ١͹Դ 繤 Ше §ҹͧշش Ъ¾ҧҹ ҧ Чҹͧ ҡشѺ Һɾ ١зӤԴ ͪȡ 觷ͷҹҧ Ъȡҧ

ͤʺ㨢ͧ١ µͧ ӹ֡㹤Դ Ш繤ѭҵ;ͨҡ١ ҵ仨 ١ ͧ ˹ ҡҹѺ

ҺͺФسͷҹ͡١ ҹҧ" (ͷ´繢ͧء)

ͷҹسͤԴԴ "ͺسء ¡ѹӧҹ ѡ ҧҹͧҵҹ ҹҧ ҹ仵Դҹ 繧ҹ͡ 繧ҹ ҧҹźҧ 觷٭ ҼԴҴ 㹷ҧ ѹ͡ ŧ 仵ͧ ӹҨҧҹ ҵͧҧ ѹ ѹ ʹ...

ԧҹҡͧ ѹͧ§ҹ ١ǡբǡԹ §ҹ͡ ѡ ѡѴ ѡҴ ѹ͡šѹ ֧ҧá ûԺѵԸ ѹͧѡ ͡ Ч ʵԴ żԴҴ ҧ ѹԴҴ ѹԴҴѹ ҡѹ Թѧ ѹͧԴҴҧ ԴҴѹͧѺ 价ѹԧ ... Ǵ ѹ ԧ ҧ ...ЪЪѹ ᴡѹ ѹ ǵͧ ....ѹ ÷͡ зӴµਵ ਵ ͧ..ѹѹչ ѹԴҴ ѹҷ ǡͧ价 ԧǴ ͧӹ֡ ͵ѻ ҡ֡ԭ

..㨡 .. ͵͹ѹդ繹...ҵ 繷ҨеͧѴѲ 駧ҹ ҷ駤 еͧ Ѳԭ ҹ ҹҪϹ 觪Ѵ ѹ .. ѹ 褳 ..͡ҡѹ д ǡ ǡ Ѻᢡѹ Ҵ 仵ͧͺ ҡվѧ ͧѴ ͧѴѹ Ѵ駼Ѵ õ

֧ҧѹͧͺҹ ԧǡ鹨繤蹾ǡ͹Ҥ ǡͺ ҧҡ ͺ ¤ Ժ .... ѷ ѡԺ ˹Ժ Ǩԧ ԧ ҡҹ § ҵ ˹觹 ͺ ỴԺ з Ҩ֧Ժ ֧Ժ ֧Ժ Ժ ..ǡҡԴ 觪 ͺ µ

..¡ѹ ǡӢǹá ÷Ӣǹá 駡ͷѧ .... Ǵ ѹеͧ ... ҧ ѹһ ѹ ѹͧ ѹͧѹҹ ͧѹ ء ҽ˹ ͧһЪ ͷеͧ .... ѹѹ ѹ˹зѹ˹ ѹ˹ ѹ˹ ѹ˹ ѹ˹͹ ѹ˹ѧ ҧ繵 ѹеͧ ѹ͹ ѹҵͧ ѧ͹ ѡ͹ þǡ еͧ˵ءó еͧͧСͺҧ ѧõ ͧ й...

仵Ңͧѹ ѹõá ...Դ 㨡ҡ ѡ繰ҹѹ"

ҺͺФسͷҹҡѺ



ҷ㹡ԨѺͧ
դͷҧҡѡط

.. Ҫҹȡ ѺѾ֡ҡèԨ Ѻ ͧ÷ҧʹ˹ ˹ѧԭ ͡ ҧ ¾ԹԨ 㹡 ҧ ´ҡʹҴѧ

سԹ : ҺʡþͷҹѺ ͧʹ˹ ԭТͧҹԹ´¹ФѺ 繧ҹ ͧ ФѺ Ҩҡš ջиҹҸԺ Թ ҵ͹ѺФѺ ѹ - Ҥ 令˹ ǹФѺ µԴ ..ͧ ҨоҢ价 ͡Һ Ҩ Ի ǡйʧ Ш ÷ӡԨẺͧ ¹ФѺ ѹ繾ԸẺ Ҩҡš 繡õ͹Ѻ Ẻ繷ҧ չ ҡԭ 仴¹ФѺ ѹѺ չ ТͧҤè ҧ

ͷҹ : ѧ ҵͧâ§ҹͧҧ͡ ѷԢͧҡ Դ͡ Դ Ҩ繻ª úҧ Ԩó

سԹ : ͧҡ礧¨繻ª ҷ 仹 ҹФѺ Ըշͧͨҡ ͧҹФѺ ҡǧ ҡʧФѺ ҡ 令ǹ鹡Դ ..ͧ Ҫǹ ͧ仴 ᢡ õԹФѺ Դ Ҥ繼 ѹ 繻ª

ͷҹ : ҵҿѧ ѹ繤㨢ͧ ͧ Դª ѹ¡ѹ зҧѹ ... ˹ ѹʵҧ 㨨 ҧ Ҩʵҧ 繻ªô ǨԸ ʸҧ

سԹ : ԴҨԸջʸҧô

ͷҹ : 绯ʸ仴 ͡ ǡҡҹ ͧҡҡ ´ҹͧ ͹¡ ¤ ͺ 价ӧҹ ¨о շ շçҹ շ駼餹 ѹ͡

سԹ : Ѻ աҹ˹觼 ҨʹѺʹعФѺ çʧ ѹҾš ҢҪ ʧ ҷ

ͷҹ : ҷ

سԹ : ͵ѹ - ѹ¹ ءطʶҹФѺ Ҫ駢仴ҧ Դ еͺѺ ¹ФѺ ѹ ѹ¹ ѹ ѹҾšФѺ ҨѹҷԵ աѹ˹ Ҥʶ Ѵ ѹ¹ ѹҷԵѺ

ͷҹ : ջѭ͡ ͧҷӢͧ

سԹ : ͧҵͺѺ ǹͧԭԹ´ ҵͺʸ仴աҹФѺ Ǽͧ Ըյͺ Ե

ͷҹ : ҧҵҾٴҹ ˵ؼա缹ǡ

سԹ : ѺǼͧҧ˵ؼǵͺ ҺͺФسѺ ͷҹѺ

ѧҡҧѾ Ҿҫѡ

Ҿ : ͷҹҧѡɳлҹͤѺ

ͷҹ : ѹԴªҷ ¹ǹٻ ҡջѭ Ѻ ҡѹ ͡ҡ ǹ еͧʧ ҡѧͧ֡ Magic ͧõâͧ ..ѵ 繾ѧ õ ͧ˭ 觨зǡ Ѻʹ

Ҿ : ʴ ʴѧҧ ͨ任ԺѵҧҴͤѺ ֡͹Ѻ ʴ ѧѹҾ ͧͧõҧ š

ͷҹ : ....ͧ价ӾԸâͧ ͧáѹ ѹС ҡ ԧ Ҩҷ ҧҹ

Ҿ : ͡仵ç ԸաҧҷӴ ѹͧ˵ؼ

ͷҹ : ҡ ҡҹ ҤԴзҧҡ

Ҿ : ͡˵ؼ仵ç Ըաҧѹ觢Ѵҧѡ͹ͧ աҧ˵ؼ ҧ ѹ͹ Ҿٴԧ ˹ҡҡѹ

ͷҹ : ѹԴ֧ ҡҨк͡ҧ Ҩд ѹ͹ҵѴ Ѵ¹

Ҿ : ҧǹ䧤Ѻ ǹҡ ǹ ͹Ѻ ҨкѧѺ 餹 Ѻ ʹ ҡҺоطٻ ѹ Ҩ¡ҧӹͧҧ

ͷҹ : ѧѺ价ӾԸաѺ 仴 ѧѺ

Ҿ : 仴 价ӵҡ

ͷҹ : ѹ繡ҹͧ ŧعй ҷҧɳ

Ҿ : ѧѺ价ӾԸյ ԴͻҹФѺ

ͷҹ : 仡 ǡԹҴ ҡԹ ҡ´͡ Ҷ繡ɳ ͧ ѹҨ Ҥ ҡªͧ Թ ҡª 价áѺ ҡ¿ ա



§ͧ
ѵ ҧ˹

.. Ҫҹȡ ǧҤ оͷҹѧӧҹͧӧҹ ѺѾҡҵԸ˭ԧ ˹ ըԵ ͧ ҧ¨ҡ仹ҹ ҡʹҨ֧Һ ҡ ԴԷҧԵ ͹ǹͧʹ 㹡йӼ ҡ ѡɳ蹹 ҡҹҹ Ҩ龺 龺͡繤ҧ˹Ѻҹҹǡѹ

˭ԧ : ͷҹ ѹդͧԩѹѧ
ͷҹ : ù (蹤) ѧ

˭ԧ : ǵʹ Һ繢ͧҹ ͧ͢
ͷҹ : ù

˭ԧ : Ҿٴ ǵʹ
ͷҹ : ٴ ѹ ѹ繾ǡ͹õ ҡͧӨԵͧʧ ǡ ҹ֡ҹѹըԧ繨ԧ ѹԴ ҧ ѹõ ҧҹ ͧԴ֧ԧ ԧ ѹͧ˵ ջѨ ֧§ դ չ õ ѹբҧ ѹͧͧ ͹ ѵ ԧ ͧԨó Ǿҧ ͧԨó ֧ԧѹ Ѵਹ ѹ繨ԧ ѹա ѹʹ

˭ԧ : ͷҹ֧ĵԡͧä () ǧԩѹǴҡ¤ ӧҹ

ͷҹ : СͧԨó ҧ ִѴѴͧѺѹ õ Ҿ Ѻҹ õ ͧ ѭͧ

˭ԧ : ҧءеͧ
ͷҹ : ͡ ¤

˭ԧ : ͧͷҹẺҧ
ͷҹ : ҵ

˭ԧ : ͷҹҷ֧Ẻ ѹҡ͹ ѹ͹ͷҹٴ ͹繷кҷ ԧ Ѻ ʹ ѹҵçҺҧ çᢹҧ çҧҧ

ͷҹ : ҧҹ ͧԨó繤ԧ ѹӤѭ˹觡͹ Ǿ ѭҾԨó 繤ԧ ѹѹ ͧԧ͡ ѹ繢ͧͧ͡ǧ ѹ繢ͧ͹ ҧԷʵ ҡѴͧ ҡҡûԺѵԴ

˭ԧ : Һʡþͷҹ



¹ Agricultural Economics
ح

.. ѹȡ س٪ ÷ͧ ʹյѡ¹طѹҷԵѹȡ ͺعͧ .. ¹ ɰʵԭ ҧ ҧ ͡Է·¹ »ʧй ɰʵ ح 价Ӵ ֧һ֡Ҿͷҹ ҡʹ Դ Ե Ȩ

: ͹ͧ͡ԷǤоͷҹ Ǥس͡ºǤ ѹ辺Ҥ¡Ѻͷҹ س͡ ͷҹ͡ ͡ʴ ͧ ح价 ѭҡ Է·ͧ͡¤ Economics 繷ѹФ Economics ҧѹ ѹѧ¡ա ѹ Agricultural Economics ҡͷҹ Agricultural EconomicsФ ѹҺح 价ӧ¡ Economics ੾

ͷҹ : Agriculture ѹ᤺ ҵ繡ä ѹдա

: 繡ä ѧ䧤 ¤ԧҧä
ͷҹ : ԧä ԧҧáԨ ԧҧüԵâҴع ҵѹЪѴ Agriculture ѹ ǧऺ ǧ ͧѹ鹹 ҵҤԴ ҷ繨еͧ 令Դǹҧ ҡ ͧͧáԨä ͧǡҵҤԴ ѹзӤ Ѻѧ ѡ ѧҡ ҷӵ ҷ Agricultural Economics ѹ Microeconomics 繡ä ѹ Macroeconomics

: ҧ Course outline ͧ Economics Ѻ Agricultural Economics ҧͷҹ͡ǹ Agricultural Economics ѹǡѺ ͧ Product market ¤ҨеͧٵҴԹҧ еͧԵ Թҧ

ͷҹ : ԧҧ鹡͹ Ǥ¤׺˹ зѹ͹͹ԭ ԭ͡价ӡҧҹ չ ͹ѹ Ҵ ҵͧ ж١١ ѡԪ ҵ ҨѺ Agricultural Economics ѹҨеյ Microeconomics

:

ͷҹ : ѹ͹ ѹ͹ 件Ҩ Ǥ¢ Macro-economics ա˹

: ͷҹ ҡ Course ͧ Economics ੾ ѹ͹Ѻ¹͹Ф ¹֡ŧ

ͷҹ : ֡ŧ仡 ѹըشҧش֡

: ص Agricultural Economics ѹЩաաҹ˹ 价ҧҹɵ ͷҹٴ ١Ф ѹ Թҡɵԧ зҧ ͷзɵáâ

ͷҹ : ҵ Microeconomics Ҩ Agricultural Economics 价ҧ Microeconomics ҵ ԭ ҧ͹ѹ 件֧仢 ѡɳ ѹ͡ Macroeconomics ա˹ դ ҧ͹ ѹСҧ Թ ѹѺʹ ѹѺ͹ йҵҡѧ¼ ¤¡Ѻѧ ͧͧ ˹һ˹ѧ ҤԴ 蹩Ѻ ع ¡Шء Ш ǧ ѾҤ Question mark (?) ͷ¹ ح Шء ǧ Ҥ ç ֧Ҵ Ҥ ֧ Economics ѧ Micro ѧҧ¤ Economics ͹ Шءѹ㹨Ҥ Micro ͹ Ҫ¤ ¡Ш ǡ Question mark ͷ

: ͧ Question mark Ф ͷҹ

ͷҹ : ѹѺ͹ ҤԴ Ѻա ح ӨҤ ª ѾҤ Шء ¡Ш ..ع ª Ҥ ѾҤ ¡Шء Ш ҷѹҧѹ ҧѹ ح ͹ (:) (,) ǡմ (-) Ҥ ѹЫѺ͹ҹ ª ª ͤдش ҧ˹觴 ਵ еͧ Ӥѭ Դ ҹ ҡ ..ѹӤѭáѹѡѹ˹ ͧ ӫҡ

: աͧ ٴҳ͹ѹ ͷҹ
ͷҹ : ɰʵح ɰԨح Ѻ ɰԨع

: Ҩ觷 paper ͹Ե
ͷҹ : paper ˹ Ҩҡ˹

: ԧ paper ɳ س ҺحФ ¹ǡѺͧ ºº ҧ ɰʵح Ѻ ɰʵع ѹ͹Ѻ Ф ѹ ͹Ѻ Ң ҹʹ ..շ ҧФ ǡ Եԭ¹ ͹ͧ Ф ¹ǡѺ èѴ÷Ѿҡ

ͷҹ : Ҩҹ ҹ˹ ˹ ¹

: ҹ ͹Ѻ ͡ кɰԨح ҧ ºº ҧحѺ ع ˹ѧͧ͢...¹ա

ͷҹ : ɰԨѹҨ繡 Ҥ繵ǻԺѵ 繵ǻоĵ 繵ǡз ɰʵ ѡԪ ҡ觪Ѵ ɰʵ ԧ ѡ ɰԨѹ 繵ǻԺѵ оĵ ҵ ֧ ɰʵ ͹ ɰԨ͡ չ Ҩ ѧ䧡ѹ ǡԪҡ Ҩоٴѹ ֧ҧá ѹդҧ ҡ͡ § ɰʵ ɰԨ һԺѵ çɮ ɰԨ һԺѵçɮ ҹͧ չҤ حѺع Ҽ Ҥ Ҥ Ѻ ѾҤ Ҽ Ң¤ ˭ ˹ ɰԨ ɰʵ ͧ ح ع Ҥ ѾҤ ͹ѡ ѹ Щй ҾͧɰԨ ع 繷ѹ ҤԺѵԷ º§繤 ʵ ӡѹ Ѻѹ ɰʵԴ Adam Smith á ͡繵鹵 鹵 ѹع 繵 Adam Smith ¤ ࡨеͧ Maximize profit 索Ҵ ͧҧ ª٧ Ѵش ª٧ ҧ ª٧ش з ѹվѲҡ س õ ͤԤ ѡɰʵ 褹鹤 ¼ з չѹҤ macroeconomics Ѻ microeconomics Microeconomics ɰԨ ੾кؤ ੾Фͺ ੾Сҹ

:

ͷҹ : ǹ macroeconomics ɰԨҧ ɰԨҧ ɰԨ§Ѻǹ˭ ҡ ҧ չТͧ micro macro ͨҤ ѺѾҤ ɰԨح ѹ¶֧ Դ ɰԨѹ¶֧ Դ ѡ ѹ

: Դͤ

ͷҹ : Դ Ȩ ɰԨح ԴȨ ǹɰԨع Դ ѹȨ͡ ѹԵ Ҩ ѹ˹ԴȨ աѹ˹ Դ Ե ҧ鹡 ٴ

() : ٴѴਹ

ͷҹ : չͤ Ҥ ѾҤ Ң¤ѹ չ ѧ ѾҤ ҡ ! "" "Ȩ" ͧ ö դ-ҧ--ԧ 褹ضت ͨҧ ͡ ֧դȨ "Шء" ҹ й鹡 "Шء" ͧح ѧҡ "Ш" ѧ 觡"" Ẻعš "Ȩ" ԧ е㨷͡ 觢 ѡ-ѹա Ҩ ٧ش ѧ㨨 "ҡ-ѡҡ" (ѾԨ) 觢 ҧշش ͹Ƿع »ضت繡ѹ ͹

"Ȩ"ҡдѺ Шѧ觢 ""ѧ訹ҡ ʴҺѹ 繤 ѧ Тá Фǧ ֧ѧҡдѺ Ե շҹ դҡ ͨ"" 觢 ح ѧ ͡Ҩҹ ҨʴҺѹҹҧҢ-͹ҶԳɰ "Ҩ" ҷ赹 ҡ ѹѺ˹ ǹʡԷҤ 訹ŧҡաѧ Фͺ Թͧ ѵطѾա ͹Ҥ ա 㹪Ҹó Ѻ ش "繵ǵ" (͹ѵ) ѹ ҡ֧ Ȩ ظ Т ¡ "Шء" "Ш" ѧ ͡ҧ ҡҤ ضتع

¹ 觡 Ȩ ѹ"Ш" ѧ͡ҧ͡ 繤ѹ ҧ - ШоѴ͡ ¨Ե ͺ ԭѡ -ѹԧ 繤 ͺ º 蹹 еͧ͹ Ȩ 繤 դسҡ ջԷҾҡ աҧҡ ҡ 繼Դ ӻª褹ҡ ֡ ҡդ 㹤繤ջª ѧҡ ª(ѵ) ͡ (ѵ) (ѵ) ͧҡ ҹ ѧ 蹤 ªèԧ ͧح "" "" ͧԴ "ԧ" ª 蹹ͧ ͹ѺѺ͹ 觵ͧ "ԧ" ͧͧҺط 繤ҧ ǡ ͡Ť 繤 ջª ͸Ժ ҡ Ҥ ջª 繤ҧ- ͺ ºѴ 餹 Ѻ ªҡ Ҩ֧"ջª" ѹѭ á 㨡ѹ駹 ҤԺѵ ֧ ͧ֡Ѻ ֡ ҹ ٴѧ

:

ͷҹ : ЩйɰԨح Шء ¡Ш ǹɰԨع ¡Шء Ш оǡ ҡ ش ǡ ͧ ѷԷع Ѿ ҡ ѧԹ Ѿ ҴŹ ѧҹͧ Թ ѹ¢˹ ѹ§ ӤӺҡ ѧе ҷѾ褹 ҹ ǡѧԹ ŧ ҴѡѾ ŧ踹Ҥ ŧ㹸áԨ Ԩù ѹҴ˹ѡա ѡѾͧ ҹ Ҵ ٴաҡ ҡѧ ˴ҡ«Ѻ͹ ɰԨع Ҥ ˹ ѹ˹ Ҥáеͧ Թ ѹ˹ 仴ٴ ҼŻªҡش ҷö عѧ繢ͧس ФسҢͧ Ҿѹ˹ ͧس ҨҾѹ˹ ͧسҴ ͧٴ еͧռŻª... ˹繴͡ س ͧ һѹ 鹤 Ѱ Թ͹ǡѡҹ иҹѹç ҹ-- þѴ еͧ ෹ ɳ ...ҵҨ ͧѡɰʵ ͧ ѹ Щй Թ份ҡ鸹Ҥ .... ѹ繵 Ҵ ٴմҡѧ ҧ˹ѡ˹ ˹? Դ٫

: 㹷ҧɰʵ ;ͷҹٴҴ ѾɰʵҺ͡ Ҵ觴 ѹ յ multiplier

ͷҹ : ѹԵ ˴ Ե˹ѡ ҡ㹤·ҧس Ч鹺͡ ѹ ¢ͧ maximize profit ѹ֧Ե ˴·ش ͧ ͧح Ѻع ҵҡٴػ brief ѡɰʵ ѧԴ˹ Ч Ҥ Ѻ ѾҤ Ǣͧ Ѻǡ ѡԪҡ ҵҤԴ ҵ ҤԺѵ ٨ ǡҤԧ ٴ ١ ٴԪҡ ҹѡԪҡ Ҿٴҧ ͧӹ ѡ˹

: ѹ仵

ͷҹ : ǫ Щй鹨к͡ Ҿٴ´ѴԵ ѹͧѹ ѹ仴¡ѹ Ҵ¡ѹ ԧ ѹҴ¡ѹ 仴¡ѹ Ѩ ͹ ع ҵͧҡ "" حҡ"" ͧù ǤԴ ʹͧѹ ҤԺѵ ѹСѹ 觡ѹ ˹ ա˹

: ѹ֧仴¡ѹ

ͷҹ : ЩйѹԴ÷Դæࡧ ж֧ҧ حº ح кح ѧѡ ͧ Ҿ觵ͧʹ ǹԹ Ҫ¼ ѧ ѹ繤س ѡࡳӤѭ

: ص ҷع´¹ح ¤ ͷҹ

ͷҹ : Һح͹ ͹ ӹҨͺ سءҹ Թ س سҷ س ѹسзѧ ͡ҡ Ҩ͡ ҨԸաѹ ҨԸӹҨҵ˭ Ըաâͧ ҧع Ҩз Щй ح еͧç ҷѹ ѡҵʹ ѡ ѹ ʧ ŧä š͡ ǡ ѡ ͧ 觶դس ͧѡ ѹ ʧ ǡŧ äͧš ͧš ح شʹ ١´¹ ҵͧ ѧŧäš ͡ س١ǧ ١ Ѵ ҡ´¹ ջѭҾͷ ŧä ҡ෡ з س͹ ʹ աҧ ͧѡйջй ҧҴ ˹ ҡҪ Фҹ ѹͧͧ ѵҹ ¸ ҡʺ ѡ ѹ ʧ Ҷ١´¹ Фš ҡ ҵԢͧ Ҩеͧº ͧҪ ͡ 蹤 ÷

: حԷ쪹 դس

ͷҹ : ع٧س º㹵˹觷Ҥ ѵҤҵ赹ͧ ѵ º Դ٫ дѺҧ Թ͹ ѧԹҾѹҷ дѺ Թ͹ ͹ҹҷ ҵҾٴ ҹԹ繨ԧ ¹ дѺҧçҾѹ Ҿѹ ҡǹ дѺ ҹͧҹ Դ٫ gap çѹҴ˹ ҵҨ֧ٴ سͧԹ 紷ͧ -紹 ͧ繷ͧ س֧ ҵҹ ͧҹ ѹԹҤҡѹ 㹵Ҵǡѹ ѹ֧ԵԹ ѹ֧ոҵ §ͧ ͷ ԷҾͧ سԹ紷ͧӹ س֧ͧ ҹ ԧѹԹ ҤǡѹѺ ç Ҥ㹵Ҵ ɰԨǡѹ .. Ƿ ͧ仵ͧ ͵ѹҹ س Ťҷ ѹ¤س źա ѹ

: ѹѧդҷҺ͡繵䧤
ͷҹ : ҵǹ ͪͧҧ Щй鹺ح褹٧ ԷҾ٧ ѹͧ٧ س ͧ٧ Ǥس٧ ҹ Թ çҴ آҾç ҡ

: ¤ҧԹ͹٧Сеͧس٧
ͷҹ : դس٧ͧԹ͹٧ ҹ觨繢ͧҹҡ 觨 · ¡ »ѭ öҾ Ъµͧ

: ǡ礹դسͤԹ
ͷҹ : ѺǷҹԹ ҡ Թ͹ѵҤҵǷҹ٧ԧ سҢͧҹ ѵҤҵ ͧҹŤ ͧ٧ ҹ سҡ٧ա ҹѧ ҹ͡ ѧ ҹҤ 仺͵ͧ 仿 ҧ ӹҨ ҧٻ ѡɳзҡ ҡ ա 繤س Ѻ͹ ѧ յҧ շ ҧǧ çЪعͧ ͼ˹ ¹ çͧҧ õ ҧҹ çѹ س Ҥྦྷ ֧ͫ ֧͡ 繨ԧ Ҵѡ ѡع ѡѡ ѡ repair ѡ re-use þǡ ѡ recycle ҧ ѹش

: ͷҹ ŧ͹ ͡ Agricultural Economics 价ҧح....
ͷҹ : ѹ͹ ҵͧ Agricultural Economics Microeconomics
: Microeconomics

ͷҹ : ѹŧ੾ͧԡ
: ѹҨд֧͡仹͡ҧ
ͷҹ : ѹҴ Ңͧȡ ҵ͡ԡ

: economics ҨШ٧س价ҧѹá

ͷҹ : 蹵Թ¹ ..ѹ Macroeconomics ѹͧͧԹҧҧ 鹰ҹح͹ ҧç ح 㨺حҧ ͧǡѺԹ ͧح ѹ价ҧ Macroeconomics ¢

: ;ͧѺع¹Ф ͷҹ ͧѺع Ҿعͧ .. صԹФ Թ ҡѺع зǧɵ ͧ ˡó

ͷҹ : ͹ѹɵ

: Ҿ¹ Agricultural Economics оѺعӧҹ ѹҨҡ
ͷҹ : ͧǴ ٴ ˵ػѨ....

: ҾԴ١ ҨҺح价 ҺحͧѺ͹Ҥɵ
ͷҹ : ѡ ѡ
: ԴҹҨй ѧ

ͷҹ : ҵҡҵѹ microeconomics ͹ ǤҢ ԭ͡ · macroeconomics

: ͹áѺʹҾ¡ Economics Agricultural Economics ҧͧԡҹ Ҩ¡ rank Economics ǹ Economics. Agricultural economics. Agricultural economics. աѹ˹ Ѵ Agricultural Economics. Economics. ¡͡ ੾Тͧ

ͷҹ : ¹ ֡¹

: ҧ ѡͧҨеͧ¹ macroeconomics microeconomics 繾鹰ҹͧ ɰʵ ѹշС ҧɵ ੾ ҧФ һѭҡ.... ͷҹ ɵԡ ѹк ѹv к Ң ͧع ٻ...

ͷҹ : зѹ mass product

: mass product Ф ѧѹҺحѧ

ͷҹ : ¹ ͧҢͧ mass product ͧҹ繾ǡ觵͹ §͹ ԹҡоѴਡ 觤ǡ͹ зӤǹ 觵ͧʹ ǡ͢ ͧ ѹ mass product ҧç繻֡蹷ش ѧ ѡɰʵ

: Technology 繨Եԭҳ

ͷҹ : Technology 繨Եԭҳ Ҩҡѹǡ仴¡ѹҴ¡ѹѹѹҧ conflict stable.. sustainable

: ʴҤ mass product ͧحзع ѹ͹ѹç mass product ͧع...

ͷҹ : йҺ ǹ Mass product ͧح֡繵ѡ ѹԴ mass product Ҩҡ ѡ֡ 繵ࡹ ѹ Դ mass product ҵҵԢͧѭԧ ԧͧ ҹ ѹǺ mass product Ǻ ǹҧͧ ҡҧҹ Mass product ͧع ѹä ѹաҹ չͧ Ҿѹҹ ˹ҵͧ ͧҹ progress ա ˹ҵͧ ʹҹ ѹ progress ѵҡ˹ ѹ ¡ѧ¹ geometric progression



§ҹùʹͼšԨͧҧآШԵԭҳ
֡ҡó ȡ

.. ѹȡ зӧҹԨͧ"ҧآзҧԵԭҳ : ֡ҡóժȡ" Һ͡ ҡ 仹ʹ ҹԨ ͷҹҺ ҡǹ˹ ͧʹ ͡Ҵѧ

ҹ : ҹǡʹ§ҹԨ ռçسزй ҹ ͷҹ§ҹ Ѻ й ¤ ҡǡ ͧѴਹ ͷ餹ҧ͡ ҹǡ绯ԺѵԵ

ͷҹ : ԺѵԵ ѹҡ 繨ԧһԺѵԵҡ ѹ٧Ұҹͧ ٧ѭ ӹ֡ ͧ ѹͧ֡ ҡҡ Ŵ͹ŧ ѹ ѹش ҡҧ 駹

ҹ : й͸Ժ§
ͷҹ : ͸Ժҷӵ ѹ١ ͧҰҹ ҧ ˹. ѡ ѧ ͧ. ҨЫҺ駴« ѹش ѹԹ ѹҡ ѹèŴŧ ҡ͡ѹ Щй鹤Ӿٴͧҷ͡ ¹ ԺѵԵ˹ Ŵŧ˹ ѹش

ҹ : ҹش¤

ͷҹ : Һҧ
ҹ : سͺѭ ҹԪ ͡кح繨ش秢ͧȡ Ԩح ҹ 繻Ժѵԡ ҧآ ͧ ҹླ ͹ѹ ҷӡѹ繡͹ ԧ س š ҡ ҡʴ Ф кǹâͧ 㹡ҧآ سӤѭ ¨֡ ͧ§ҹ س;ٴҴ Դҹ蹡ͧ ҧҹ鹹 繻ª ѧ س͹ѹ ԷѡѪ ͹ѹ ص ǡͧպѺ价 زա سع¡ سع¹ 繤 줹á

ͷҹ :
ҹ : Һ͡¹˹ҧ ֧͡Ѵ ҧͧЪ ¹ҡẺ ¹ 㹺ػ ¤

ҹ : س͹ѹ͡ҵͧԸդԴԧѧ͡Ѵ ͧ§ҷӧҹҧ աкǹ ҧ þѲҤ ҾѲѧ ҧ餹ӧҹ Թ͹ ҹҴع سͺ͡ բͧ ҹԨ¨ջªҡ Ш˹ѧ դس ҹԨ ͧҵʹ 觷ʹͧѺ 繨ԧ س;ٴ֧ Ҵ ҹح ҧ㨢ͧѧ ͧ ͧþѲѧФ蹤ͧ

ҹ : ѹԹѵػʧͧԨ ѵػʧ红
ͷҹ : ҢҼһա ѹ͡ҡ ѹй´ ҡ ʹͧͧ͢ ѹ´

ҹ : .Թ ԾԸ ͡Ҫȡҧ䡢ͧح ѹҷ ǡʡѴ鹷ع ҡ 繪Ѵਹ Һح ǹҧ آзҧԵԭҳ ҧ Ҩʹ Һ͡ ա÷ǹ ֡ äǺͧʹ ҡ͡ҧ šѺ Ǫ ͧȡͧ ҧ Ǫ ͡ Ǻͧ ͧš͹ѹ ҡ ͡˹ 餹Ժѵ ҧ 餹 Ѻҧ

ҹ : ֡ .ԹըͧͧûԺѵԸ ҵԴҹԨͧФ Ҿͷҹ ҡѺ ҹ 褹 ͹˹ҹѹ ҨҹԵ ʵ Ҫҹȡ ҹԵª ҡ觡 ¹ ͧա ¹ԶժԵ ͧǡ

ͷҹ : Ҥҡ¢

ҹ : ҨҡûԺѵԸ㨢ͧҹ鹹¹Ф ٴ֧ҪȡءԶշҧоѲ Եԭҳ ӹҨ˹觷зԵ ҡ¹ 觷ҡз ѹҨҡ˹ҧ ѹҡз ҡ˹ ǪȡԸըѴáѺѹҧ

ͷҹ : Ǥس¹

ҹ : ҹͤ ˹ ѧ¹稤 ҡ·Ѻй ػç
ͷҹ : йҹ ѹ繻ª ǹ ѹóẺ繵 ѹ͡ Щй ѹͧѺй йҹ

ҹ : ѧ§ ѴਹФҪȡѡ÷ҧʹҾط㹪ԵШѹҧ

ͷҹ : ѹѴ ¹ѧ ѹͧ͡㹪ԵШѹ ͧҹЪԵШѹ͹

ҹ : ѹ繩Ѻͤ ҹѺ 㹩Ѻ ¡ҧԵȡ Ǩػ´ ѡ˹

ҹ : ҡ͡ҡҹ

ҹ : ش¢ͧ ͧػաҾѴਹ ءٴ͹ѹҡ¹Ѵਹ .ءѭ ش÷Ѵ ͡ ѹȡ Դ Ѻ 繤ҡФ ա͹Ƿҧѧ ҧͧ äѴҹ ҵҴѡѾ з͹ ͧ ҡ¹͡ 繵ç

ҹ : ҹɮ ѧйšҤ

ͷҹ : ҹɮҴ
ҹ : Ҥ ͧͺسҹҡ͹ѹ ҹͧͧ͡ջª ͧ ͹˹ҹ ҹէҹ ا෾ ѹʹ§ҹ ѹҹ úѹʹ ҹͧѺѴ ԩѹ¶ҹ ͧԹҧ ѧûЪ ҷҹԹҧҧ ¡ѹ ͹ѹЪФ ҹ͡ ͧǧ ҹҡպ ҡѧ 騺ҹ ǡѧ оٴѹ֧ Щй ѭ Ѻ仪á͹ Թҧ ҡا෾

ͷҹ : ҹѧ䧺ҧ

ҹ : ҹ͡Ҿ¡͡ҡʧ ǡ·СѺѰ СѺʧ վѧ ӧҹҧҡ ǡ ش蹢ͧ ջѨ ͧǡѺ ѧҧ͡¡ ͧͧ ҹ͡ ҹԨ¹ Ҩзͧ ͧͷع ԩѹѧ ҡк͡ҹ ԧ ͧ ѹ红 ѡ ֧ͧͷع

ҹ : ԧ¤ٴФҵ͹ȡ͡仪ѧ
ͷҹ : ͹ ҷ͡ѧ ͹ ҧҧǢͧҡ͹ Ҩ ¡Ѻ ҡ ѧ繤

ҹ : Ƿҹ͡ҶԴѭâ ѧѹ ȡ ҹٴԧ ǡ 觵ͧ
ͷҹ : ԧ ѹԧ

ҹ : ҹٴ֧úô¤ ҹ͡ȡ༴稡 ѧ աûЪѹ㹷ءдѺ վͷҹ ӵ ͷҹ ӵ ԴաûѺا ʹ ǡٴ֧ "ѭ" 蹪 ѳ ҹ ǡԯ ҹ͡ ѹȡ ҡ 㹡÷Ѻ ͧѳ ҵҹ Ƿԯ

ͷҹ : ҹй㨤׹ 㨤׹Ѵ ¹ ҵͧ ¹ŧ ҡ׹Ѵҧ Ҵʹҹ ֧ѹ ͤ㨼Դͧ

ҹ : ԩѹѺҡҺ ͧҷ ҹѵҨѧ

ͷҹ : ֧䧡¡ Ҿǡҹѵ ǡҹ ҹաѹšҭ оǡҢѴ 觡ô

ҹ : ¡ҧͧҡѺ¡ҧͧҡ͹ѹ

ͷҹ : ͹͡ ҤԴõ ҵҢҤ繡ҧ¡ҧ еͧ§ 仢ҧ § Ҵ ҵ¶ 繡ҧ ѹ¶֧ سѡɳкǡ ѡɳź

ҹ : ǡ

ͷҹ : 繤سѡɳкǡ ѹèеͧ շȷҧ ͷ价ҧǡ ҧ¡ҧͧҹ... Ҥس سеͧ ֧ŧ Ҥسŧա س֧ͧբͧ ŧա سдҡ ԴẺѹ駹 褹 ѹԴҧ Դ ҡҹ Դ ТҴ 褹д֧ ŧҪ ѹ ҧ ͧ ҧǡѺ ҧʹ ԡҡԨ оط Ѵ ѳá ȹ 仴

ҵҾ͸Ժ ͧ͸ԺѴਹç شҧͨش٧ش šص ŧҡչŧ ŧ š Щй ҤسѺ شҧ سѡ ҧ¡ҧ ͤ繡ҧ

شҧͧࢵҧšѺšص (͡ҧ͡Ǩҷçҧ ͨشҧ) ͧç 价ҧ ҧšص (ҡشҧ仴ҹ˹ Źѡ) Դͧ ͧ ش ҡҡ Թ (աҧ˹ š شҧҡ) Ҩе֧ͧشҧ ҧҧ ͧҡѺ Ǩд֧

ҹ : ԹҨشҧ鹺ҧ

ͷҹ : ѹ ѹ ѹ͡ ͧͧ ͧѧ٧ش ٧شѹç ѧ ֧ Ծҹç Ũ شǹ ѹش Ҩд֧ŧ ͹˹ ҷӴ ҧѹ͡

ҹ : ǹ˭ҴѧԹҨشʧҷӹФ ҡѧªҡҹԨ¹¤

ҹ : ..ҧ ѹҹԪ ͸Ժ¤ҷԹѵػʧ Ҩѧͧ ç աç˹ Ҩҹ á ǡ¤ Ҩй 礧ٻ ҧ 颹Ҵ ҨٴçѺѵػʧ ҷԨ ͷ㨵ͧҡ ǨѲҵͧ ¶ʹ෻ ҹͷҹѧ¹Ф ҧǹ

͹ѺЪ´٧ҹسԹ ԩѹդѹҧҡ÷ӧҹ鹹ǹ˹ ȡ ͧҡ дԩѹͧ Դ 餹ҧ͡ 㨪ȡҡ ǡ觷¡ ûԺѵͧ ͧآ ҹԵԭҳͧ ȡ º§Ѻ ѡ͹ ͧоطʹ. . . ѹҡ ѹ ҡ ͹ѡԨҾ ŷ ѧ¡С 鹨ҡ Ҩйʹ ѧ䧶֧СЪѺ СзѴѴ ԩѹʹ§ҹ ͡ ѺФ Ѻá - ˹ ѹ ҧա 礧ҡ ѹҧ˹ ҹ ջªФ ǡ§ҹѺ˹ Ѵ͡ ͻҳ ˹ҡ 㹩Ѻ͹ ѹ ѹ 任ءѧ䧡 Դ ѧͧǹ º Դ çҧ ͷ ѧҡ ҧõ ѹ ͧǷҧ ੾ҧ ûءФ ͧ ͡ ѡ ػҡ ʹ ͡ ó Ѻäͧ ʹԩѹ Ҵ鹷ء ͡ ѹȡ ҧ Ѻ 㹷ش Ԩ¡͡ ըó Ѻäͧ çФ ԩѹԴ ͧáͧ Ẻ͡ ֧ ҹɮ Ҫ зҺ͡ ó Ѻ äͧ зѹᵡ 蹷ӹ 繺ح ҹ繴 ҹ ҹ ѹҨ仵çѺ ѡ ա 觷 ôԵͧ ѹȡ ѹ ҤҤԹ úǹ ԩѹԴ ѹҨѡҧ ҨҤ¡ѹ ѹ سٻҡ ѹ鹤ԴӤѭ й Դѧ ҹ ҡҺ ѹȡ ١Ҥ ѧѺ ҧ ҧ ͡.... ׹Ѵ 蹤 ҷ԰Թ ö з麷ҷ ͧѹȡ ؤ· ع ѹͧѧ Ңй 觷軯Ժѵ ִ ѹҨ֧Ѻ ҹ ѧ繨ش˹ ԩѹͧ ѹȡ кǹ ѧФ ͧẺ ѧԷ ͧ 繡ʹ 褹شó ѹ դԴ ¡ѹ öҡ 繵ͧҧ͹ 繵ͧդء ҡشó ǡҡ ػ͡չФ ѡ ׹ѹ͡ҧ ö Դ Ҵ ʴ § ͧ ͧ Сʹ Ҩ ؤ ѹ ҡҴФ Ҩ繨ѧз ѹȡ еѡ Ѵ Ѵ Ҩ 繷 ѹȡʹ Ң ҽ Legitimacy (١ͧ, Է ) Ѻ׹

ͷҹ : ҵ¹˹ѧ ҵҶ֧ͧҧûԮ

ҹ : ҹ蹡йӤѹ ػҵͧ¹觷ҷӡѹ¾ѲҨԵԭҳҧ

ҹ : ͷҹ Ͷͧ͡Դ˹觤 ͧҹФ 餹ѡͧѹ Ҩ çѧ

ͷҹ : ҵǨͺ ҡ Ѻا ѹ͡ ѹѭҵ оطͧ ѧѴѹ ѹͧ ҵͧ ԧͧ ѹѧҢҧͧ ѧѵ ѹͧ ҧ 繸 ѹ еҤ Ҵ ѹͧ ա 㹡ѧͧ ѹѧ ѵҹ ѹͧ ͡ ĵԡͧ ͧѡɳоǡ 繸ҸҵԨԧ ҵͧͧ繤 繻ª Ф Ţ ѹѴҡѹ Щй 觾ǡ ѹ⨷ ѹ⨷ ǡس Ǥس ¤ṹ ʢͧҡ鹢ͧͧ

ҹ : ԩѹǧҨ´ ǡѹ ǡ͡仡ѹա

ͷҹ : !..ѹ͡ҧ ٨ҵԺԺ ѹ͡ 繸ҵ ͡ Ժ ѧѺ ѹ ͧҵ Ҵ͡Ѻ ѹ˹ѹҡҡѹ Ҿǡѹҡ ѹ͡

ҹ : ͷҹ Ǥѧա ǹҤ

ͷҹ : ǹѷʹẺ˹ աա ǹʹաẺ˹ ǹ ǹ ѹ繸 դǹ ѹѧǹѧش ǧ ŧ ǹҧ ѹ ҵԢͧ ѹҴ ¤ !..֡ҷҧ դ ǹǹ պͧ 赡 ǹ úǹ úǹ Ҩоٴ Ѵ ٴ ѧǹշҧҧʨ§͹ѵ

ҹ : ͷҹ ǤʴҺѹеͧխҳ
ͷҹ : ҧѹխҳ ӹ֡͡ѹ ѹѧöҵ͡ҪѴҧ͡ ѹ֡ ѹ繢ͧ ѭ ѹ ǡѹŴ Ҩ͡ѹŴ ѹŴ ͧ Һҧŧ óẺ㹡ҧٻҹͧ

ҹ : ͡
ͷҹ : ͡ ¡Ԩ͡ оطҷҹѴਹ ҷҹ´ ҹѴ ءҧ ....! ҳ ֡Ҩԧ ѹ ѹ ֡ ¤ ʴҺѹ 㨭ҳ ͸Ժ­ҳ ͡ Ը ռŢͧҶ֧ ҵ׹ѹ¹ҪȡҰҹʴҺѹҡ 件 ͧ͡


Դºѹ֡Ѻ ҡҷԴЪȡ .. ҡҺҧǹѧ ǡҤѹ ǡ лЪ оطҷҹ 蹡ѹЪ 觾ѹЪ 觾ѹԡЪ ѹ ԧ ͧͧ Ѻѹ áҾٴ¡ѹ ¡ѹԴ ¡ѹ ¡ѹѴԹ ͧͧǹá ͧ ˭

Ҷ١ͧ˭ ԧ 硹Դ ͡ѡɳ ѭѡɳ ѵѡɳ վ ʴ ͡ ѧҧ͡ Ǵ ӧҹ ֧ѹ仴֧ѹ ҹҡҧ 㹧ҹҡ ѧ仼ҹѺҧ͡ա֧֧ѹ˭ ͡仢ҧ͡ ҡѺ Ҿǡ˭ С Ҩ ҡ㨧 ѧԴشó ˭ ԧ ѹҧ ԧ ͹֡ŧա ԧ͹ѹǡشó ¹ öҾ ¡ҧ й Ҩ֧Ҩ ᨡ Фѧᨡ ͨԵԷѧ ѹѺ͹ ҹ 繢ͧšͧҴ ҵͧҧ ҵẺ ;٨ԧ 㹤繨ԧ ͧѨ 㹤繨ԧͧ ĵԡԶդͧ ҧ ѷԷع ѷš ѹ ѹءӺҡ ´¹ 觪ԧ ҹ ҭ ŧҹ ٴѨѧ ѹʹ ͧһѴ ҭ ѡ ᨡͨҹ 觪ԧ ѹͧѹ ԴҡѨԵԭҳ ͨԵԭҳ繨ԧ ǡ ҡ 繨ԧ ҧ ѹԴѹ ҵҡҹҡԧǡԴǡ 仹¹ 觾ҡó 觤Դ ͧͧ Ҩеͧҧ ҵҹҡԧǡԴǡ ҡͧԧ ´ǧ»ѭ ͧҵ ҵҾٴ͡Ҿǡس繵 Ҿٴҧ դԧ سҨͧѧ֡ ´ҷҵͧԺҾٴҹͧ ԧ ҵҾٴԧ ٴ á ٴ֧ ǤԴ 觷è 觷Դ Ҫ ׹ѹ ǾǡҡѺѧ Щй "" Դ ѹȨԧ դ繻֡ ˹

..зСѹ 蹤 ըСԹ 褹Ȩ 觡ѹ ѹ ǹ ҡѧ觡ѹҧ Сѹ Ф ѹ觡ѹ º ᨡ ͡ ѹ ʶҹ 觤ԧ ͧš Ҥ¤ ѹ觨 觡ѹ ´ Ҥͤǹҡ͹ѹ

ǡҨ 繡èȨ 觡ѹ ҡ ҵ¡ҧ仢ѧǡѹ Ѵ ´ ѹ ѹШԡѹ˭ ѹѹ зСѹ ѹ ͧ ѹʹѹҡѹǢ ѵ ͹ѹ 仢ѧѹ ѹʹѹҡѹСѴѹͧ ѹз Թ͡ѹͧ ǡ""ջѭ Ҩ"" ѡ ӵ騹 ""ҧդԶմԹԵ ҡ ¨ ҭ ""Թҧ شó« ʹ͹ 繤Ѻ͹ ͧѨ ֡ ǡҨԧ ٨Ǩԧ

ءѹ ҧ͡ҡҢ դҷԨ ԷҹԾʹ ҡ鹷ء ͹ ˹ ¹ɰʵ ҵҡԨɰʵح ǡ㹻 ҨзԨ ɰʵͧȡ Ѻ ҧ"Ҩ" ɰʵ¹á ͧ ͧع駹 еͧ·駹 Ҥ ʹ 价ӻԭ ɰʵ ҧ ͧ µǢͧ Agricultural Economics (ɰʵ㹡ԡ) ɰʵ ѹ Microeconomics Macroeconomics

Microeconomics ɰʵ੾е ֡ɰʵͧ ੾С੾ͧ

Macroeconomics ɰԨǧҧ ɰԨҧ ɰԨҧѧš ɰԨͧŪ

ҹçҹ ҹѧͧǡ ҧӡѹҵ͹ءҹ Ҩдҹɰʵ ͹ҵ ѧ ˹ӹТͧɰʵ͡ѧ Ԩ Ҥ Ѻ ѾҤ

Ҥ micro ǹ ѾҤ macro ѺɰԨҨդ«͹֡աҧ ҵ ٴ֧˹ѧ "ҤԴ" ͡ѹǢ Шء-¡Ш ҨШء macro micro ѹѹ繨Ҥ ͡¹ Ҩ Шء 餹¡Ш Ǥس ¡ Macroeconomics ͤس¡ Microeconomics 㹴ҹŢͧѹ ŢͧɰԨ ѹ ͧ֡ ͧҡ ѧӤ㨡ѹ ҡͧ֡ ɰʵح ѹѺ͹ ˡ ѧҧ ҧɰʵҡ ɰʵعءѹͧҷҧ ..¡Шء -Ш .. ª.. мª Ҥ ѾҤ Ӥǹ˭ ¤ ǹ ѹѺ͹ҡ

ҵҡ¡繤... ɰʵͧ¹ ͹ ҹ ֡ ͹ ֡

ǡҡӧҹѹҶ֧ѹǡ繤 ԴҾǡҨоѹͧ""ѹҧ " ¡ 鹡ѧª"

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