ҤԴ.

ɰʵͧԧط ͹


Դҧͧ㹾طʹ
ش㨨¹ ͷӤ ǡѺҵԢͧ "ӹҨѰ" Ъ繪ͧҧ 繷ҧ͡ ҡá 觤Ѵ ͧӹҨѧ ҡҡҹ ҧطѪ ѹҨ ǤԴ "ɰʵͧԧط"


(ͨҡѺ)
ҡҹҧ»ѪҢͧѷɰԨ Ẻع ѷԤǹʵ ǹҨҡ ӹѡª (Utilitarianism) Ҥ ͡áз Դªآ ҡش 褹ӹǹҡشѧ (The greatest happiness for the greatest people)

óͧк»ѪẺª ԴѭҤ׹ҧá ҧ ԵԴҹ ҧªآ 㹻ҳҡش (the greatest happiness) ѺԵԴҹ ҧ ªآ Ѻ ӹǹҡش (the greatest people)

зкɰԨẺعѡ 价ҧªآҡش ѧ 觤 (wealth) ԴҡԵ ͧѧ 繴Ѫպ觪֧ ҳªآ ͧѧ µ кɰԨ Ẻǹʵ ѡ 价ҧªآ Ѻ ӹǹҡ ش áШ żԵ ҧѹ Сªͧҧ ҧѧ 繴Ѫպ觪 ֧ªآ 褹ӹǹҡش ѧ Ѻ

кعԸ觧ҹѹӵѴ 䡡觢ѹ 㹵Ҵ աԷ 㹷ѾԹ ҧ ѡ٧ ԵҾ (productivity)ҡش йԴͧҧ ҧǹ ִ "Ҵ" (market) Ѻ "ع" (capital) Ѻҡǹ˭ ͧѧͧ觾ҵҴ 觷ع ͤʹ (ѧ 㹵͹͹) 觼ªآ ҡشѧ 鵡Ѻ ӹǹҡش

ǹѰǹʵԸִԵŷ繢ͧѰ ǨѴüżԵ ЪҡҧǶ֧ ѹ ѧ Ш»ªآ 褹ӹǹҡش 餹 ҡѹª 㹡觢ѹѹ ҧżԵ ѡҾ ٧ش (ж֧ѹ ӧҹҡ ١Ѱִ 繷ѾԹ ǹҧ й зӧҹ ѡҾ дѺش ҷ դԴ ж١ŧ) 觼ҳªآ ͧѧ Ŵ¡ дѺ֧

ѺɰʵحҡҹҡطѪҹ 繷ҧ¡ҧҧѭ Ҥ (dilemma) ͧ ش ҹ ѷԷع ѺѷԤǹʵ ʹк ҧ׹ ҧá ҧ ҹǧ ªآ ҡشͧѧ Ѻ ҹáШ»ªآ 褹 ӹǹҡش ѧ

ǤԴɰʵح ҧ躹԰ҹ ͧѡ÷ҧطѪ ҧ

. Ѩá㹾طѪҪ âͧԵ ǧҤآ ǧ 鹷ء ǧ Ҿ ҡФպ 繷ءþѭҵҧ ¸ ѲҢ 觺觪 ֧þ ͧ еͺѭ ѭ ŴФպ 繷ءͧԵ ҡԵԵ˹ дѺ дѺ˹ ˹ آԧ ءҹ鹷Դ ءҹ鹷 зءҹ鹷Ѻ

͹繨ԧ سԤ͹Ŵŧ ¡й 繤 ѹ ҡ ¡ ء Ŵŧ 繤آѹ ش͡秷դ ͧ ѹԧ ͨش سԤ͹ ͧҿùδ ͧó 繵

Ŵ͹⹷ȹͧآ ⹷ȹͧء Ŵŧ Ъѭ ش͹ͧ ѪẺª ͧ ҡ آ٧ش ͧԵ 蹹 ش آ ó (absolute happiness) 繤آ ҡش ç˹ Ш件֧ش ҧ ͡ҡ آѧ » Ҩࡳ 㹡õѴԹ آ˹ ˹͡Ẻ˹ ʹҧ آ سҾ٧ (ҷ آҡ ǧһѭ) ջҳ Ѻآ سҾ (ҷ آ ҡ˹ҭ 㹡ú) ջҳ٧ ҨࡳԹԨ 㹡õѴԹ ҧ͡˹ 觷ա 觻ѭҵҧ ҹ »ѪẺª ö ӵͺ Ѵਹ Ŵ͹ ⹷ȹͧآ ٻͧ ءŴŧ еͺѭ ҹ

. Ѩͷ 㹾طѪҪ繵 ¢ͧ Ԩػҷ 㹾ط ͡ š ҵ Ѻ ѷҾ ҧ -ǡ Ե ѹ觷 "١" "ٻ" ѺԵԭҳ "ҵ" "" ԵԷ ¨¡ 觷١ (ٻ) Ѻ觷˹ҷѺ () Шҡѹ Ҩ֧˹ҧ ФǺ͡ š ٻ- Ե (ǡ Ե + ԵԷ ͧ + ԵԷ ͧԵԭҳ 繸ҵ) ҡäǺ ԵԷ ͧԵԭҳ 繸ҵ Ф оطҨ֧ Եٵ ءԺҵ ѧصùԡ "ҧ ˹ 觻Сͺ ѭ㨹ͧ Ҥѭѵš ˵Դͧš Ѻͧ͢š зҧ֧ Ѻ ͧš"

͹Ǣͧҹǡ ѷҾѹ سѡɳТͧ觤 "ѷҾ" (relativity) ժͧҧ ФǺ ͧҹǡ ӷ١繢ҧ˹ ¡äǺ ҹǡ ӷ ҷ ҡѧѺ ҹǡӢҧ˹ 觪ŧ 觤 ҹǡȢͧ ҡѧѺ ҹǡ ӹش Ѻ觢ͧ ҡѺҹǡӹ 繵

سѡɳТͧ觤ѷҾ ҧ觷١ (ٻ) Ѻ觷繸ҵ Ѻ () ժͧҧ ФǺš ١Ѻ ¡äǺҡ ԵԷ ͧԵԭҳ 繸ҵ Ẻǡѹ ѹ

㹢зѳ (ѳ ǵѳ ǵѳ) ˵طԴ պ繷ء (طѨ) Ҩ֧˹ҧ Ҷ֧ ͧ㹪Ե ѹ觤Ҿ ó ҡպ 繷ء þѭ ҧ ¡ûŴµ ҡӹҨͺ ͧʵѳػҷҹ ˵ 觷ء

. ҡѨ á 㹾طѪҵ㹢 , öػԴǺʹ (conceptualization) Ẻͧ ҧԵʵ

H = آ P = ѭФպ繷ء
D = ͧ S = 觵ͺʹͧͧ

ͧҡآüѹѴǹѺѺء (ͤآѹѺФպ繷ءŴŧ)
H
. . . H = ( a Ҥ)

зФպ繷ءͻѭ (P) üѹѴǹµçѺͧ (D) üѹѺ Ѻ觵ͺʹͧ ͧ (S)

P D/S
. . . P = b. D/S ( b ͤҤ)

ҡʵѳػҷҹ繤ͧǹԹͧԵ ջҳŴŧ (DŴ) Фպ 繷ء ͻѭ (P) ջҳ Ŵŧҹ Фպ 繷ءҡѭ Ŵŧ (PŴ) آ 觷 ҳ ҡҹ (H )

Ҩ֧˹ҧªآ öªͧżԵ 觵ͺʹͧͧ (S) 㹨ӹǹ Դ ªآ٧ش (maximum utility) ͪԵͧ աԶշҧ˹ ¡Ŵҳ ͧ ǹԹ 㹪Ե Ŵŧ (Ŵ D ͷ P Ŵŧ H 㹢з S ջҳ )

. طʹͧͧ ҧ͡áзҧ Ҩ繡áзӷҧ (¡) ҧҨ (Ǩա) ͷҧ (⹡) çʹͧ ԴҡáзӴѧ ˹ǹ Ѻ Ժҡͧ 㹷ȷҧ (ȷ繡͡) дѺ ʹҹѹѺ áзӹ

Ťԧ (real value) ͧżԵҧ ҧ ֧èѡҡѺŤ ͧçҹ (͡) 㹡üԵԹ ͺԡôѧ ѡâ͹ ʹͧѺɮ ŤԴҡçҹ (Labour Theory of Value) ͧѡɰʵ ӹѡԤ ӹѡ졫

й鹡õѡǧһªآǹԹ(surplus value) ҡŤԧͧ ѹԷҵ (natural right) Ҿ֧ѡѺͺ᷹ ҡ çҹͧ ͺҡ è ֧繡ҧ "͡š" Դ зŢͧҵ ١з ѹй Фպ 繷ءҡѭҵҧ Դҡ кҵ ͧѧ ѧǵ ʹ繡 ( D ) 觨зªآ ͧѧ Ŵ¶ŧ ( P дѺ٧ H դŴŧ)


ҡҿ MSB ʴªآҧѧͧԵ˹ش ˹· ѧ (marginal social benefit) MSC ʴ鹷عҧѧ ͧԵ˹ش ˹ (marginal social cost) ѧ

зѧռżԵ (S) еͺʹͧ ͧâͧ餹 дѺѭҢͧѧ (P) դ٧ ö ҧżԵ ҡ ªآҧѧ (social benefit) ͧżԵ˹µ (marginal) ˹ ռŵ͡ ѭҢͧѧ Ŵŧ ӴѺ (ö ͧö ª ͹ ͧ ªآͧ ,, Ѻؤż ФŴ¶ŧ ӴѺ 繵)

੾ҧẺԶաüԵẺع Ե ͧ餹觪ѡ٧ Դ觢ѹѹ ҧżԵ ӹǹҡ ͤ觤 ԴҡԵҾ 鹴ѧ 仡Шء 㹡 ǹ öª ͻªآ ͧԵ˹ش ѧ 觶١ "" 仴ѧ դŴŧ ֧ (ѧ͸Ժ 㹵͹͹) ˵ػѨҹ MSB ѡɳҴŧ

ǡѹ 㹡ҧżԵ˹ յ鹷عҧѧ ͧšз¹͡ (externalities) µ 鹴 ҷ

) Ѿҡâͧšŧ зѾҡøҵǹ ( ѹԺ 繵) Ť 鹷ع ҧѧ 㹡ҧżԵ ˹µ ֧٧

) зԴҡüԵ Сúͧ з鹷عҧѧ Դҡšз Ǵ 㹡ҧżԵ ˹µ ٧ ( з㹤٤ͧ ѧҴ û¹ ŧ ˹ ˹á Ҩռšз ͻҳ ҡ شԡĵ û ŧա˹ Ҩ 㹤ͧ ͻ¹˹· ŧ Ҩ ͻ¹˹· ŧ Ҩ ¤عçͧšз Ǵ ӴѺ 繵)

) աҧżԵ ͧҷҧе鹤ͧ 㹡úͧ餹 µ鹵 ͨ ö ¼żԵ ѧ ҧżԵ ҡԹдѺ 㹡ú ͧ ͧ觻ء ͧǹԹ ͡ʵѳػҷҹ 㹨Եԭҳͧ дѺҺ عç µ ҡҹ ( D ) 觼ѭҵҧ ͧѧ ¤عç 鹵 ( P )

ͧСͺҧ ҹ з MSC ѡɳзҴѹ ШеѴѺ MSB (ѡɳҴŧ) ش ˹觤ͷش C дѺüԵӡҨش C ѭҢͧ ҡҷ мżԵ § ͡ú зԴ ʹҡ ҴŹ ѹйѭҵҧ

дѺüԵ٧Ҩش C 㹡ҿ ѭҢͧѧСѺµ٧ ҡҷèѡա ѹͧҨҡ ѭҷѾҡøҵ ŧ ѭǴ ʹ ѭҵҧ Դ ҡдѺ ͧͧ ǹԹ ͡ʵѳػҷҹ çҧǹ֡ҧѧ ١ء µ ҡ

ẺԶաüԵͧѷԤǹʵ ҧѭѧ 㹷ȷ͹价ҧ¢ͧҿ з ẺԶ üԵ ͧѷԷع ҧѭЪҤ 㹷ȷ͹价ҧҢͧҿ ǹẺԶաüԵ кح ɰԨ§ лѺ ش觡ҧ (ش C ) ͧҿ ѹЪ¤ ѭҢͧѧ Ŵŧ ֧شش ҷѡ֧ Ժ ͧ͹䢵ҧ ѧй

óçЪҪҳ ѹԶաüԵɰԨ§ 鹡üԵ Ẻҹ 㹤͹ ͡ѧվ ǹԹ¹͡˹ ᷹üԵԹ Шӹǹҡ (mass production) ͡è˹ 㹵Ҵ ǾҪ ͧкҷ稾 ͧɰԨ§ ֧˹ҧӤѭ 㹡ûѺ кüԵ شҾ ͧش C 㹡ҿ ͪ¤ ѭҢͧѧ Ŵŧ ͺ Ңҧ

(ҹͩѺ )

(ҤԴ Ѻ Ҥ )