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Դҧͧ㹾طʹ ع ɰحҧ

ɮաԴӹҨѰѤѭٵ

 

 

ش㨨¹ͷӤǡѺҵԢͧ ӹҨѰ Ъ繪ͧҧ繷ҧ͡ҡ á觤Ѵ ͧӹҨѧ ҡҡҹҧطѪ ѹҨǤԴ "ɰʵͧԧط"

ɰʵͧԧط ͹
ɮաԴӹҨѰѤѭٵ

㹾ٵêѤѭٵ զԡ үԡä оطҶ֧д ҵԡ͹Դ кѧͧͧ (state of nature) ѧҡšŧ ժԵҧ ͡Դ ؤá ѹҧѹآ ҧشó ͧкȹ㹸ҵ ѧçҾ

"...ǡԴբբͧ繢 ź Ҵ 繢 ͹ ѵҹ Ң ͺ ͹ չ ء ᷹͡ ͹ Ҿҡѹ Ң ͺ ͹ չ鹷 ءЧ᷹͡ ҡ ͧ"

ͨԵԭҳͧ١ͺ¤˹Ѵ Ф¨ҹ ẺԶաüԵ Сúͧ ¹ŧ仨ҡ ѧоطͧçµ

"...駹 ѵ˹Դ¨ҹ ֧դҧ ١÷ҹԭ ҪҧӺҡ¹ ͧ红շ Ѻ Ѻ ҡй Ҥ红 ͺ ҤԴ" ռ˹鹷ӵẺҧ չӤѭҧѧ (significant others) ¹Ẻ աâ¡áѡع żԵǹԹ 㹡ú ӹǹҡ ҡԹ ѹ ¢ͺࢵáѡعżԵ ǹԹ Թ ѹҧ ѹҧ ѹҧ ҡ 繷դٳ

ѡع żԵǹԹ Ѻú 繤 ҡѹѡع ҵͧ 蹹鹺ҧ Ҩ 纡Թ ͹ ʹҡ ·ͧӡáѡع żԵǹԹ 㹡úҧ ŷششó ͧкȹ㹸ҵ ١Фͧ

¡ҧ¤繡кǹ ¢ͧкȹ çѴ 蹶ѧ ӹǹ x Ф ѹ ˹ ӹǹ ͧ ͡úҡѺ x ˹/ѹ

ѧüԵ ͧкȹ㹸ҵ öԵ ѹ x ˹ ǤͶ 红աԹ㹵͹ ӹǹԹ x ˹ ͹繡բع¹ ᷹͡ ж红աԹ͹ 㹨ӹǹԹ x ˹ ͹ҡբع¹ ᷹͡ 㹡óչ x բաԹҧشó

ѡع żԵǹԹ㹡ú ѺԹ ǧ˹ ѹҧ ѹҧ ѹҧ ѹҧҡ Ф ѡعżԵǹԹ 㹡ú ѺԹǧ˹ 㹻ҳ¤ҡѺ ˹/ѹ ҳͧżԵ ѧ ͧúӹǹҡ ҡѺ x ˹/ѹ

;ѧüԵͧкȹ 㹸ҵѹ x ˹ 仵ѡǧ ҼżԵҡҵ ѹ x ˹ Ҥ ͧк ȹ㹸ҵ ١

º͹ͧѡ÷աѧüԵѹ ˹ ͧԵѹ駤׹ żԵѹ ˹ ͧѡù鹡ЪششҧǴ Шоѧ㹷ش

оطҶ֧ Ҿͧкȹ´ СúԹҳͧ

"...ѵҹ 红 ͺѹҡ ͹ չ鹨֧繢 紺ҧ ź紺ҧ 鹷١ Ѻ᷹͡ ҡҢҴ繵͹ ֧繡"

кȹ١ Фشó ͧҵ ٭ "ФҴŹ" Դ Ե ҹ

Сá зҳͧǹԹͧ ١е µ ҧբͺࢵش żԵеͺʹͧ ͧôѧ ըӹǹӡѴ "Ѻ" (perception) ͧ Фպ ҡ "֡ҴŹ" ԴԵԴҹ˹

ǡѹ ѧüԵͧкȹ㹸ҵ ١ŧ СԴСâҴŹ Եաҹ˹觴

ѧüԵͧкȹ 㹸ҵöҧżԵ x ˹/ѹ Ҷ١¨ ;ѧüԵ x ˹/ѹ ͨӹǹ Ъҡ µҡ ԹҾѧüԵͧҵ еͺʹͧѹ ҷ ӹǹЪҡ ҵ x ͧ ͧкѧ x x = x ˹/ѹ ѹ觼Դ ҴŹâѧ 繵

ҴŹй ԴʶҺѹԷ㹷ѾԹ (property right) ѧ ͹ Ҵ ¡͹ кҹҧչӽ Ѻҧ§ äԴͺͧ ҢͧԷ 㹹Ҵ Ѩغѹ ҾǴ١ Ӥͧ ӽþɻ͹ 餹ҹҴèآǴ¡ѹ Դִͧ ҢͧԷ 㹹Ҵ繵

оطҶ֧ԴʶҺѹ Է㹷ѾԹͧ 繤á "...ѵҹ֡ҡѹǡѴԹ ҡй ǡҤ лѡѹࢵᴹѹԴ... ѵ¨֧觢 лѡѹࢵᴹѹ"

Է㹷ԹѡСѹͧФͺ բ (㹷Թŧ赹ͺͧ) Ѻ ١줹Ң 仡ѡعԹ ͡Թ

ԴʶҺѹԷ㹷ѾԹ ҡóԴ ѧ ԴԷ 㹷ѾԹͧ 红 ŧԹ ͧ Һ 繵 â¨֧Դѧ (͡͹ ҢͧԷ ֧աó ԴԷ)

ͨѺ á (ҵ) Դ ÷ҷѹ Դ Сõ¡ѹ (С÷ҷ) ԴӴѺ ش¡դ ͧʶһʶҺѹûͧ ѧ ͨѴ ºѹ ͧ餹ѧ ѧоطҵ Ѥѭٵ

"...駹 ǡѵ繼˭֧Ъѹ ǵҧѺءѹ öҢͧҢͧ ѡҡ õ¹ѡҡ þٴ稨ѡҡ öͷ͹ѡҡ кһ һҹ Դҡ ѵ ҡй ǡҨѡ ѵ˹ 繼ҡ ҡªͺ 繼¹ õ¹ªͺ 繼Ѻ âѺªͺ ǹǡ ѡǹ"

ҹԴͧӹҨѰ֧Ҩҡ ;о ѷԷ ͧǡ Ҩҡ¡ѹ ʶһ ʶҺѹӹҨѰ ѹѴ͡ 黡ͧѰҷ˹ҷ ѹ ѭһЪҤ (social contract) Ѻͺ ҡ餹ѧ ѧоطػѤѭٵ

"...١ʯ÷Ҫ ˵ؼ˹ѹҪԴѧ ѡ Ҫ ֧غѵ ѹѺá ˵ط˹ ѹ˭ ࢵ´ѧ ѡз ѵ ѵ ֧غѵԢ ѹѺ ˵ط˹ ѧ آ ¸ѧ ѡ Ҫ Ҫ ֧غѵԢѹѺ "

ѧյٵ үԡä զԡ оطǶ֧ӹҨ ˭ ѵҸԻ (յ˭) šҸԻ (š˭) ҸԻ (ո˭) ԨóһСͺ Ѻ Ѥѭٵù öṡ кͧ ѡɳТͧ 黡ͧѰ

. 黡ͧѰẺ "Ҫ" ѹʹͧѺѷԷҧͧ ẺЪҸԻ šҸԻ ִ š˭

. 黡ͧѰẺ "ѵ" ѹʹͧѺѷԷҧͧẺ ѵҸԻ ִ͵˭ (ѷ༴ ӹҨẺҧ öѴ㹻 ѷԷҧͧ)

. 黡ͧѰẺ "Ҫ" ѹʹͧѺѷԷҧͧẺ ҸԻ ִ͸˭ (ͺش óҧͧ зСǶ֧ 㹺ش)

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